Sample Nutrition Essay Paper on Scientific Report




One of the greatest and sweetest charm in most of the delicacies that are consumed
worldwide by almost 99.9% of the world population is sugar. It is true that most people even
consume sugar unawares. Sugar has a sweet-bitter reputation when it projects to the health
states of the consumers. According to Cleave (2011), Nutritionists believe that one of the most
addictive delicacy that many people succumb to unknowingly and very hard to rehabilitate is
sugarcane. Assuming being in a better and stable health condition and then be presented with a
sugarless coffee or tea, or even a tasteless (sugarless) cake, we won’t be able to hold it for long,
before we spiting off to the ground. Sugar naturally occurs in all the available foods that
contain even at a little amount, the compound called carbohydrate. Carbohydrate includes, but
not limited to fruits, dairy, vegetables, and grains.
However, the scientific research found out that consuming the whole foods that carry or
contain the “natural sugar” is okay. The foods with “natural sugar” are found to have an
important role in the diet of the cancer patient(s) (, 2018) and any
individual trying to prevent cancer majorly because they dispense essential nutrient(s) that
always strive to keep the body in a healthy state and help prevent the emergence of the disease.
Since the human body digests these consumed substances (foods) slowly, the sugar that they
contain provides a consistent and a steady supply of energy to the body cells. According to
Walker (2014), A considerable intake of fruits, vegetables, grains also has been discovered to
reduce significantly the risk of chronic-diseases, such as diabetes, heart diseases, and some type
cancers. With all that discussion it would be fair to explicitly state that sugar is a silent killer.
Therefore, this document is mainly focusing on the health problems associated with sugar
consumption which can cause heart disease.


Glucose, fructose, galactose are the building blocks of sugar. Sugar in its natural state is a
healthy component of the human diet as per the research of BONSDORFF (2009). The problem
only comes when people start to consume excess amount of added sugar. Added sugars can be
described as those that the food producers or manufactures add to the products to increase some
sense of flavor or extend or improve shelf-life. Added sugar is the actual sucrose, as described by
(Chen and Whitlock, 2012). The research reveals that when sucrose is consumed no matter in what
quantities, during the metabolism, the sugar is converted to fat and stored in the body, to be specific
in the linings of the heart. It further proves that there is an association between a high sugar diet and
a greater risk of dying absolutely fast from the heart disease. Within the course of a 15 year study,
individuals who supposedly got 17% to 21% of their calories from the consumption of the added
sugar were found to have a 38% higher risk of succumbing to the cardiovascular disease compared
to those individuals who consumed 8% of their calories as added sugar. How the consumption of
sugar actually affects the health of the heart is not completely understood, but it occurs to have
several incidences of indirect connections, as illustrated in the succeeding paragraphs.

High blood pressure

In most of the European countries the, the most renown or the top sources of added sugar are
flavored yogurts, soft drinks, cookies, cereals, cakes, candy and fruit drinks. The research has
shown that even in the our daily soups, sugars are present in considerable quantities as well. The
linkage between the type of food we consume and the level of calories we consume is wanting. The
astonishing fact is that even the scientists themselves haven’t found any outstanding solution to this
menace to the present. Walker (2014) found out that when the body produces and releases too much
of the insulin and leptin into the blood stream in response to a higher carb diet, it initiates the
increase in the blood pressure. Hyper-insulinemia raises blood pressure, in part (relatively), by
lowering or decreasing the level of sodium and water excretion in the kidney(s), and consequently
vasocontristing blood vessels (Barnes, 2017). Hyper-insulinemia may also play an intermediate role

in an atherogenesis and, by addendum, atherosclerosis, through the interaction of receptors on the
blood-vessel wall. Hyper-insulinemia is also shown to alter and interfere with the lipid metabolism
unfavorably a phenomenon which accelerates and highly promotes the oxidative-stress and
inflammation. As the insulin levels tend to rise, insulin resistance gradually and eventually
develops (Cleave, 2011). If the insulin sensors or receptors are weakened or blunted and the cells
become resistant to insulin, the mineral, magnesium can no longer be able to be stored, hence it
freely passes out of the body through excretion process. When the magnesium level is too low,
blood vessels in the body will be unable to fully relax (ease), this constriction raises blood pressure.
Inhibiting of Nitric Oxide is another consequence of excess sugar consumption. Fructose, distinctly,
elevates uric-acid, which initiates an increase in blood pressure by preventing the release of the
nitric oxide in blood vessels. The oxide is regarded as the most important vasodilator and helps the
blood vessels to maintain their elasticity, the suppression of nitric oxide leads to the increases in
blood pressure (, 2018). The phrase “ heart disease” is a general term that
refers to any disease that affects the heart. According to BONSDORFF (2009), high blood pressure
can result to the two main forms of heart diseases; coronary artery and hypertensive heart diseases.
Coronary occurs when the vessels that supply the blood to the heart muscle have a build-up of
fatty-deposits, causing the hardening of the arteries. This consequently limits the flow of blood to
the heart muscle. Over time, this condition will result to a heart attack.


Another health threat that directly results to heart disease according to Cleave (2011) is
diabetes; a health hazard that is tightly tied to the consumption of sugar. Diabetes is always
differentiated and grouped into two types; type one (1) diabetes, which is resulting from the
destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas, normally through the auto-immune
process. The core initiators and triggers for this process are still not yet discovered or documented
by the health research reports, but the available literature documents that they may include dairy

proteins, and viruses (Malhotra, 2016). Type two (2) diabetes explicitly starts with the insulin
resistance. Which means that the body cells resist the effort of the insulin to escort glucose into the
cells. The resistance seems to be caused by the accumulation of the microscopic fat particles within
the muscle and the cells of the liver. This fat is resulting from the oxidation of the glucose in the
blood. In an attempt to overcome the insulin resistance, the pancreas always tries to produce extra
insulin, and when the pancreas can no longer manage to keep up, the blood sugar is bound to rise.
A combination of the resistance of insulin and the failure in pancreatic cell leads to diabetes. Over
some period of time, the high blood glucose from diabetes can tamper with and damage the blood
vessels and the nerves that manage and control the heart and the vessels. Therefore the longer an
individual suffers from diabetes, the higher the chances that he/she will develop heart disease.


Aside from the calories it contains, sugar is a highly addictive substance. Some argue it is as
addictive as drugs like heroin. When we eat sugar, it causes a neurotransmitter response that makes
us feel good, and we experience a mild "high". Once this feeling subsides, we end up craving it
again. Studies are even showing that, like drugs such as heroin, we build up a tolerance to the sugar
and end up needing more and more to produce that same high. Therefore, the calories add up and
we end up gaining weight. Atherosclerosis is the process that gradually hardens the walls of the
arteries, making them lose their elasticity and finally blocks them up or narrows them down to
impair blood flow. The blockage is caused by fatty and fibre-like deposits. It is scientifically proven
that high body-mass index is inexorably related to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is so to tell the
major underlying cause of cardio-vascular disease. When it infects the heart, it may result to
coronary-artery disease and heart-attacks (Walker, 2014). Also, when this infects the brain it causes
stroke and finally, when it affects the peripheral-blood vessels, it results to the peripheral artery



From the ongoing discussion, it becomes pretty clear that consumption of sugar in an
inconsiderable level is a straight road to an early grave. Heart disease is found to be closely tied to
the consumption of sugar. Moreover, sugar is shown to be contained various foods humans
consume, both unknowingly or knowingly. Additionally, it realized that sugar consumption is not
directly linked to the heart disease, but causes some other disease that consequently results in the
heart disease. Diseases such as high blood pressure, weight gain (obesity), and diabetes are cited to
be the most common occurrences that directly lead to heart disease in the long run.


Barnes, R. (2017). SUGAR AND HEART-DISEASE. The Lancet, 303(7865), p.1054.
BONSDORFF, B. (2009). Less common causes of heart disease. Acta Medica Scandinavica,
100(3-5), pp.320-351.
Chen, Z. and Whitlock, G. (2012). Unveiling the causes of heart disease in China. Heart, 95(22),
Cleave, T. (2011). SUGAR, HEART-DISEASE, AND DIABETES. The Lancet, 303(7856), p.515.
Malhotra, S. (2016). In search of causes of ischaemic heart disease. Heart, 35(1), pp.17-23.
Uddin, M. and Ahmed, M. (2017). The Secret Linkage Amid Sugar and Heart Disease: Is Sugar
Truly Foe Rather than Just Friend?. Archives of Medicine, 09 (06).
294(7629), p.1071.

SCIENTIFIC REPORT 8 (2018). [Online] Available at:
00148.pdf [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018].


Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

Each year, heart disease is at the top of the list of the country's most serious health
problems. In fact, statistics show that cardiovascular disease is America's leading health
problem, and the leading cause of death. Consider the most recent statistics released by
the American Heart Association:
 Approximately 84 million people in this country suffer from some form of
cardiovascular disease, causing about 2,200 deaths a day, averaging one death
every 40 seconds.
 Almost one out of every three deaths results from cardiovascular disease.
 The direct and indirect costs of cardiovascular disease and stroke are about $315
billion. This figure is increasing every year.
 An estimated 15 million U.S. adults have coronary heart disease.
 Approximately 78 million U.S. adults have high blood pressure, and an estimated 20
million have diabetes.
 It is estimated that an additional 8 million adults have undiagnosed diabetes and 87
million have pre-diabetes.
 Heart failure affects well over 5 million U.S. adults.
 Cardiovascular disease is the cause of more deaths than cancer, chronic lower
respiratory diseases, and accidents combined.