The Use of Models and How to Select a Proper Policy Model
A model is a human construct (it could be a conceptual or physical object) that is used to assist humankind for a better comprehension of the real universe systems. In simpler terms, it refers to anything used to represent a real object. All models possess an information output, information processor, and the results of the expected output (Locke, 2000). Models are therefore essential not only to scientists but also to students. For example, Methodological Modeling for Physics Teachers creates a compelling justification to apply this model in the introduction of geosciences in the classroom. The scientific practice comprises of the validation, construction, and scientific models application which are used by the scientists. Science instruction should therefore be designed in a unique manner to involve students in using and making models.
Models are therefore prominent and can be used in different ways. First, working with models enables system-thinking potentials. Secondly, models offer an interactive environment for student engagement. Research has indicated that key learning gains can best be achieved when students engage in environmental interactive engagement activities. Thirdly, the knowledge acquired after using models and comprehension of model implementation and development can be translated to other related disciplines, such as the earth system (Locke, 2000). On top of this, several models enable one to take sensitive studies to detect the changes in prominent key variables interference with the dynamic system behavior. In addition, models and model development help learners with quantitative skills, such as computation skills statistics, visualization, and graphical analysis. Finally, Earth-System Models of Intermediate Complexity and other earth system models enable us to carry out experiments related to the solar system without potentially harming and interfering with the actual earth.
It is therefore important to select a proper policy model for a successful expected output. Technical and pedagogical are the two prominent classes, which should be incorporated in modeling activities for the introductory of geosciences courses. A technical consideration entails the acquisition of ideas or models in a useable form, use of proper equipment, and identification to demonstrate physical models and learn skills on how to manipulate and operate some modeling software, such as those applied in computer simulations of analogous systems, mathematical models, visualization models, and statistical models. For pedagogical consideration, one has to put into account several things when modeling instruction activities, such as the activity at hand should be interactive, engage students in model development to create an intensified connection with the real world, and allow students to comment and analyze models behavior to advance their understanding between variant rates and inputs (Locke, 2000).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Top-down and Bottom-up Policy Agenda Setting
An agenda serves the purpose of subsequent structuring of policy choices. Top-down approaches operate under a large macro-economic approach. One of its merits is that it can be carried out by any mobilizing party with large loans such as the governments, investors, and large corporations since they contribute to project development such as new business ventures and infrastructure. It also reduces poverty from its trickle-down theory, which benefits both the poor and the well-off in society. It is however argued that economic development brought about by technological and scientific advancement results in environmental degradation. It also resulted in the loss of cultural tradition and identity due to changes in occupation from rural to urban factories (Ferrington, 2012).
Traditionally, the formulation of budgets has been in accordance with a bottom-up approach. Most countries during the 1990s experienced fiscal deficits, which deteriorated in some countries resulting in the fiscal crisis. It was out of this crisis that the top-down system attracted public attention. In the newly preferred top-down system, the formulation of the budget was completely different from the bottom-up approach. For instance, the difference occurred when the finance ministry based the overall ceiling expenditure on the assumptions of medium-term fiscal target management and the macroeconomic. The bottom-up approach was therefore advantageous in that the resource allocation authority was delegated to the ministry of line. Furthermore, bottom-up incorporated and fostered the development of local people, thereby promoting economic growth and gender equality. However, it should be noted that there is no strategic development without flaw, since development theories are ideologically based and might fail to illustrate what is and is not prominent (Ferrington, 2012).
Religious Groups, Private School Interests and Public School Defenders’ Battle over the Place of Religion in Education
Religion is very important in any given community since it is one of the measures used to implement people’s beliefs and culture. However, a number of moral education programs in public schools tend to ignore religion (Nord & Hynes, 2003). According to most educators, students can obtain wisdom in any field they pursue without indulging in any lesson on religion. The trend has been realized in our deeply religious culture, causing outrage to most religious conservatives; as they interpret the absence of religion in learning institutions to signify hostility to religion. Most parents with age-going children are not pleased with the absence of religion in learning institutions; since they believe that religion is part of their culture and should therefore be nurtured. This has generated cultural wars, which divide communities, and in the process undermine the mission of our education. The classroom has turned out to be the major battleground in the wider conflicts over the role of religion in public life (Nord & Hynes, 2003).
Public schools ought to be neutral in religious matters; following in the footsteps of the Supreme Court, which has embraced neutrality as a touchstone to adjudicate clause cases establishments. Parents are solely responsible for the upbringing of their children inclusive of the educational sector and as a result, they ought to be informed and involved with religious matters at school. The curriculum can be fairly and fully accommodated if the religious rights of students and parents are sustained in city public schools. Most parents interpret the negligence of religion in the curriculum as proof that public education sides against religion. The effective way to curb cultural wars in schools from battleground to a common platform is by providing public civil schools (Nord & Hynes, 2003).
However, the survey indicates that Americans know less about the educational constitution. Education, according to Boychuk (2010), is a right in the U.S constitution and perceives as a necessity for good citizenship and cannot be denied. In addition, public education ought to be micromanaged by the supreme law court. In the United States’ constitution, education is a state and local concern and is among the top priority rights guaranteed. However, most citizens view education as more of employment for the federal government; insinuating that schools have done a poor job when it comes to educating people about their rights (Boychuk, 2010).
The Influence OF Federal Reserve Board on Supply of Money
Federal Reserve System refers to the central banking system used by the U.S government. In recent years, the Federal Reserve Board has played an active role by influencing the supply of money, more so in the national payment systems, thus promoting a good policy to the citizens of the U.S. The U.S congress created three prominent objectives, namely the long-term interest rate, maximum employment, and stable prices, which aim at promoting monetary policy in Federal Reserve Act. Monetary policy is conducted and documented by the Federal Reserve of the nation which provides financial services to depository institutions, regulates and supervises banking institutions, offers and sustains the stability of the financial system. The main motivation for creating Federal Reserve System was to solve the banking panics, to furnish an elastic currency, and to settle for effective banking supervision in the U.S (Touche, 2009).
The Federal Reserve is very important to the U.S payment systems. Banking services are provided by the twelve Federal Reserve banks to the federal government and depository institutions. Accounts and payment services such as collecting checks, distribution of coins and currency, and electronic funds transfer are sustained by depository institutions. Reserve banks act as fiscal agents in the federal government, which process electronic payment, pay treasury checks, transfer, and redeem government securities in the U.S. Federal reserve, thereby promoting effective payment systems both nationally and globally (Touche, 2009).
The Federal Reserve deposits, which are a reserve balance kept by private banks at local Federal Reserve Bank are the namesake for reserves. Funds are kept at Federal Reserve Bank to create a mechanism to enable private banks to lend funds to citizens; making it easier and efficient for them to access funds all through without the fear of funds shortage. This pool and distribution of funds are applied as the basis of monetary policy, whereby most private banks uphold their bank reserves in the accounts of the Federal Reserve.
Taxes should be distributed fairly and evenly to avoid dishonesty acts such as lobbying in both the government constituency and the common citizen. Lobby refers to the process of attempting to interfere with the decisions made by government officials, more so, the regulatory agencies or legislators. Lobbying is unethical to act practiced by individual people, groups, and organizations. Professional lobbyist refers to a group of people whose major enterprise is to influence legislation. Non-profit organizations and individuals might lobby to volunteer as part of their daily job, for instance, an activist arranging to meet up with his legislator in unclear terms of payment scenario. The morality and ethic of lobbying are dual-edged, whereby people who tend to have inordinate socioeconomic capacity corrupt the law since they withdraw from fairness to serve their individual conflict interest (Andre & Shanks 2004).
Justice means acknowledging each person’s capabilities and awarding them accordingly without any self-bias. The terms justice and fairness are often used interchangeably to mean the same thing. Fairness has often been used to draw judgment irrespective of one’s interests or feelings and being just concrete, and specific to a particular case. The key principle of justice accepted globally states that equal measures should be treated equally, and unequally treated as unequal. A new perception of lobbying is to make sure that the interests of other people are fairly defended from the tyranny of the majority. For instance, a medical association of Health Insurance Company might lobby a legislature to eradicate the influence of tobacco, and therefore the lobby here would be justified since the defense mechanism is against corruption (Andre & Shanks 2004).
Andre, C. & shanks, T. (2004). Justice and Fairness. Justice and Fairness. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/justice.html
Boychuk, B. (2010). What the Constitution Says About Education. Home. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://heartland.org/policy-documents/what-constitution-says-about-education
Ferrington, M. (2012.). sub-scribe magazine | sub-scribe.org. sub-scribe magazine | sub-scribe.org. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.colorado.edu/sasc/sub-scribe_s06/research/michael_ferrington/essay1.html
Locke, W. (2000). What is a Model? What is a Model? Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/models/WhatIsAModel.html
Nord, W., & Hynes, C. (2003). The Communitarian Network. The Communitarian Network. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.gwu.edu/~ccps/pop_moral.html
Touché, D. (2009). Federal Reserve Banks Combined Financial Statements. FRB: Annual Report 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/rptcongress/annual09/sec6/c3.htm