Sample Paper on Conflict Resolution Models

Conflict Resolution Models
Conflict can be described as the contest between individuals with differing ideas, values, goals or needs. Unresolved conflicts can lead to nonproductive results, but when resolved on time, quality products can be achieved. The need to respond to conflict is to come out of the conflicting situation so that positive understanding can be attained. As illustrated by John and Christine (2004), psychologists in Australia formulated a conflict resolution model whose aim was to integrate literature as a way of achieving positive outcome in a conflict situation as reiterated by Uwazie (2003). A conflict resolution model is, therefore, the integration of research to come up with ethical practices that will create a fair reconciliation and a win-win situation rather than competitive practices in ending a skirmish (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse & Miall, 2011).
Conflict resolution models are the stages or processes that are considered in facilitating a peaceful coexistence in dealing with conflicts. The models take various levels of engagement that is done through active communication in an attempt to find the basis of the problem or ideologies between the parties involved. Different models are applicable in solving conflicts depending on the portfolio, such as agreements, regulations, and resource management. Graph model for conflict resolution is one technique that shall apply to resolving conflicts in a complex environment situation. Environmental disputes are complex situations that involve multiple interest groups with different objectives and course of actions. Graph model for conflict resolution is a comprehensive systematic approach to resolving world disputes such as environmental pollution (Deutsch, Coleman & Marcus, 2011). The approach is an appropriate tool for analyzing participants in the conflict, as a communication and mediation tool and a third party analysis tool.
The application of a graphical model of conflict resolution is divided into two parts. The first part is classified as modeling, and it consist of five stages. The first phase is decision-making, options, feasibility states, acceptable state transmission and relative preferences. The second part of graphical model consists of three steps namely individual stability, equilibrium, interpretation, and sensitivity analysis. The ultimate goal of the graphical model of conflict resolution is to collect information that will assist in the decision-making process (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse & Miall, 2011).
Psychologists Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann designed the Thomas-Kilmann model of conflict resolution. The dimension comprises of the vertical axis, which look into the assertiveness of the parties to get the desired information. The horizontal axis considers the cooperativeness of the parties to attain their expectations. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict resolution model takes into account five options, which are competition, accommodation, avoidance, compromising and collaboration. Competition is assertiveness with little cooperation that is applicable in situations where there is need for quick action. People may try to avoid conflicts just because they do not want to get into conflicts (Furlong, 2005). The scenario is typical in situations when one of the parties involved consider the issue less important and wish to reduce tension.
Consequentially, accommodating the conflict is less assertive, and high cooperation hence is an opportunity for good will, reasonableness and keeping peace. Accommodating the conflict can be done through forgetting one’s desire, obeying orders or selflessness. Situations may arise when both the parties involved in the conflict giving up more than their expectations or making all the parties to win. The conflict resolution model, in this case, is referred to as compromising the conflict and is appropriate for issues with moderate significance. The act of compromising the conflict can be done through negotiation, making concessions and assessing values of the situation.
Judging the two conflict resolution models, conflict resolution should not be lengthy as in the case of the graphical model of conflict resolution. In the second model of Thomas-Kilmann, the primary aim of resolving conflicts is to work towards solving the problem and creating a stable understanding between the parties involved (Furlong, 2005). Therefore, it is not appropriate to avoid, compromise, accommodate or compete on the conflicting issue. Some populace may not be in a position to have the patience and the positive attitude to handle a status quo in the same manner.
After analysis of the aspects that emerge in resolving conflicts, I suggest a conflict resolution model consisting of five stages.

The first step in resolving conflicts is to identify the problem. One cannot make a decision without finding the root cause of the problem, or one cannot avoid, accommodate or compete for a conflicting situation without identifying the problem. The mood or the feeling that are associated with the conflict is the second stage in resolving a conflict. This model considers the different kinds of attitudes that people develop in a conflicting situation. Identifying people’s feeling is very necessary for resolving interpersonal conflict and maintaining the harmony (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse & Miall, 2011). Avoiding or competing in the conflict situation may not maintain the desired harmony.
Identifying the impact of the problem causing the conflict is an effective approach to preventing future occurrences. The identity will help in achieving personal goals, maintaining interactions and ways of coordination during the resolution process. The stage is also effective in knowing the level of interpretation and the sensitivity necessary in handling the situation. Making the decision to resolve the conflict will depend on the impact of the problem (Uwazie, 2003). The intervening party has to know the potential consequences that can be realized from the problem. The final step is to choose a resolution of the conflict at hand and define the approach to resolving the conflict and cooperation needed to handle the situation. The mediator has to develop a conflict management plan, considering the expectations, situation, best practice, communication skills and self-concept (Sagel-Grande & Bilsky, 1999).

Deutsch, M., Coleman, P. T., & Marcus, E. C. (2011). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Furlong, G. T. (2005). The conflict resolution toolbox: Models & maps for analyzing, diagnosing, and resolving conflict. Mississauga, Ont: J. Wiley & Sons Canada.
Ramsbotham, O., Woodhouse, T., & Miall, H. (2011). Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention, Management and Transformation of deadly Conflicts. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Sagel-Grande, I., Polak, M. V., Bilsky, W., & E.M. Meijers Institut. (1999). Models of conflict resolution. Antwerpen: Maklu.
Uwazie, E. E. (2003). Conflict resolution and peace education in Africa. Lanham, Md. [u.a.: Lexington.