Critique of an Article by Guevara et al. (2019)
In the article by Guevara, Parra, and Rojas (2019), the focus of research is investigating the significance of a nursing intervention relative to usual care in increasing adherence to therapeutic regimens among patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The study further aimed to explore the intervention’s significance in effects relating to levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and systolic blood pressure among patients. This focus applied based on the recognition that despite diabetes and hypertension being among the most common diseases worldwide, affecting about 8.5% and 25% of the world’s population respectively, lack of adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is a major problem among patients needing and receiving long-term treatment (Guevara et al., 2019). The nursing intervention trialed in the study was “Teaching: Individual,” aimed at meeting the needs of patients individually. Guevara et al. (2019) deployed a randomized controlled trial with a two-arm, single-blinded design. The sample comprised 200 participants, whom the researchers allocated to the intervention or control groups randomly. The study features no direct and comprehensive outcomes, with the researchers indicating that follow-ups, final analyses, and representation of the outcomes are still in progress. Nonetheless, they noted findings in current literature that educational interventions focusing on multiple components promoted adherence to health team recommendations among patients successfully. The researchers anticipated that the study would assist health authorities to plan and implement educational interventions aimed at fostering adherence to the therapeutic regimen. Although the study has some limitations, the research method is appropriate, and the methodology is relevant; therefore, the results are valid and reliable.
The study’s title is fitting because it captures the study’s fundamental focus and content. It offers a direct and effective idea of what the audience could expect to find in the study. Additionally, the title indicates that the article is essentially a study protocol document, serving to outline the design of the study and the overall organization of the research that Guevara et al. (2019) conducted. The article is essentially a template and guide to the entire process of research that Guevara et al. (2019) conducted, rather than a complete research article with complete results of the study and identifying particular conclusions and implications for practice.
The background section in the study introduces the subject of interest and creates its context effectively. The researchers identify the lack of adherence to treatment among long-term care patients with diabetes and hypertension as the focus of the article, noting that the conditions affect the global population at rates of 8.5% and 25%, respectively. Additionally, the problem is likely to grow with the increasing population and rising prevalence of risk factors in modern society. Guevara et al. (2019) note that effective treatment and management of diabetes and hypertension involves alterations of lifestyle, strict adherence to drug treatment, and commitment to weight loss, fruit and vegetable-oriented diets, and regular physical activity. In such a context, adherence to these guidelines is essential to ensure the effectiveness of delivered care and prevent a strain on healthcare resources. The researchers note the role of interventions that employ different components and take a long time as effective in meeting patients’ needs before defining the nature of the nursing intervention and hypothesis in their study. The inclusion of these aspects in the background is a comprehensive and concise statement of the problem of focus in the research.
In the methodology section, Guevara et al. (2019) outline the specific design of the study and efforts to ensure the reliability and accuracy of results. Their choice of a randomized controlled study was suitable in the effort to assess and quantify the effect of the intervention because it involves the random assignment of participants to experimental and control groups, such that observable differences between the groups could be attributable to the outcome variable under study, rather than external variables. Moreover, the sample of 200 participants in the study was significantly large to promote the representativeness, accuracy, and reliability of data and findings because of the significance of large samples in enabling researchers to account for the huge diversity of variables in a target population and identify potential outliers (variables or qualities that are significantly different from the average).
The researchers sought the informed consent of participants, indicating that they informed the participants of the purpose of the investigation and the ways in which they would utilize the information collected from them. This was an important aspect of the study to respect the integrity of participants as human beings. Nonetheless, the study has a lamination, which is the researchers’ choice to utilize questionnaires in the data collection phase of the study to evaluate the clinical histories of potentially eligible patients. This choice promoted the susceptibility of findings and conclusions to the limitations of these instruments. Questionnaires collect data about the experiences and views of participants on particular measures. The accuracy and objectivity of information collected using this approach are highly dependent on the correctness of subjective experiences and views among the participants, especially considering that different people have varying perceptions, attitudes, and understandings of the same issues and experiences.
Overall, the study exhibits good organization to ensure the reliability and accuracy of results in evaluating the significance of the nursing intervention relative to usual care in increasing adherence to therapeutic regimens among patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. Nonetheless, considering that the article was only a protocol document without a statement of the findings and their implications on practice, it is not possible to evaluate the relevance of deployed methods in supporting the findings and in terms of representativeness and generalizability to the population comprehensively.
Guevara, S., Parra, D., & Rojas, L. (2019). “Teaching: Individual” to increase adherence to the therapeutic regimen in people with hypertension and type-2 diabetes: protocol of the controlled clinical trial ENURSIN. BMC Nursing 18(22): 1-9.