Sample Paper on Cultural Bias and Types of Cross-cultural research

Cultural Bias and Types of Cross-cultural research

Cultural bias is a situation where one interprets and judge things by standards associated to one’s own culture. On the other hand, cross-cultural research is study of practices, beliefs, social roles, norms, expressions of different human communities. This paper reviews biases that make it difficult overcome one’s cultural comfort zone, three types of cross-cultural research and how they help minimize biases when marketing product in different culture.

Biases that make it difficult overcome cultural comfort zone

Communication styles difference. According to Kelvin Avruch and Peter Black, communication style is one oft biases that contribute to one resisting moving out of their culture. The way in which people communicate verbally and non-verbally varies between and within cultures and this influence one to restrain in their culture especially where expressions bring different meaning to what they know.

Attitude toward disclosure. Douglas (1982) states that this type of bias also makes it hard for one to overcome cultural comfort zone. In some communities being frank about ones emotions, reasons behind an act or information is regarded inappropriate whereas it is acceptable in others. Due to above reason, one may not be free to discuss or share information freely with people of different culture and therefore opt to remain reserved in own culture.

Different approaches to solving conflict. Different cultures view conflict in different perspectives, for example some prefer face to face (open) conflict while others regard this as embarrassing and disrespectful. This can lead to one finding it hard to fit in another culture due to fear of how to resolve misunderstandings.

Types of cross-cultural research

Regional comparative cross-cultural research. According to Levison and Ember (1996), this type of cross-cultural research aims at studying cluster of people inhabiting given region in order to be familiar with their practices and beliefs. This cross-cultural research helps minimize communication bias when marketing a product in different culture since one will be informed on which language to use. In regard to attitude towards disclosure, one will be able to determine which information and to which extent to give when marketing.

Controlled comparisons cross-cultural research. This type of research is recommended by Fred Eggan and he explains that it is possible to predict what accounts for cultural differences within a region if history, location and language are kept constant. This type of research is useful when marketing in different culture since it will make one appreciate other culture practices.

Large-scale region is the third type of cross-cultural research. According to Burton (1991), this kind of research tries to group cultures so as to make conclusion about their similarities and differences. This research can help minimize cultural biases when marketing in different culture since it will make one feel as a member of community and ease commutation. Cultural constraints can affect marketing and therefore corporate culture should be embraced