Sample Paper on Effectiveness of Community Policing in Crime Prevention

Background

With the rising number of terror attacks, current literature on crime prevention indicates that crime rate has been on the rise worldwide. Major cities with sophisticated crime prevention mechanisms have not been left out because the number of crime rate is also rising even in these cities (Clancey, 2011). According to Yilmaz (2013), community policing that was developed with high expectations does not provide projected results in every situation and in every country. Some authors argue that discrepancy between incumbent organizational structures and community policing practices causes failure in this crime prevention method. Other authors attribute this failure to psychological factors while other authors do not attribute this failure to either of these two factors. Instead, these authors attribute the said failure to police resistance to change (Klimasauskiene, 2014). In an effort of trying to establish the effectiveness of community policing, this research proposal proposes a research study that will evaluate the effectiveness of community policing in preventing crimes in Melbourne city.

Problem statement

Although community policing has been hailed to be among the most efficient crime prevention strategies, current literature demonstrates that it has not been effective in preventing crimes in totality. Yilmaz in particular claims that it has not been effective in curbing crime under certain conditions and in certain countries. Various reasons have been cited to be the causes of failure in this policing strategy (Yilmaz, 2013). However, there has not been any consensus on the effectiveness of this method in curbing crime.

 

 

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the proposed study will be to evaluate the extent at which community policing has been effective in preventing crimes in Melbourne.

Research question

The research question for the proposed research study will be as it follows: Has community policing been effective in reducing crime rates in Melbourne?

Hypotheses

In line with the above research question, the null hypothesis that will be under investigation will state that community policing has not been effective in reducing crime rates in Melbourne. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis will state that community policing has been effective in reducing crime rates in Melbourne. The outcome of these two hypotheses will depend on the data that will be evaluated. The said data will help in establishing whether community policing has been effective in preventing crime in Melbourne or it has not been effective in doing so.

Literature review

Current literature on crime prevention indicates that various methods can be used in preventing crimes. The four main categories of these methods include social development, locally based methods, situational methods and reintegration programmes. Social development strategies involve changing crime risk factors by changing the way societies function. This strategy may include community transformational programs that target young people likely to become criminals in the future (Levi, & Maguire, 2004). The strategy may as well target young school-going children with an aim of teaching them the dangers of engaging in crimes. This practice may deter children from engaging in crimes thereby reduce crime rates. Locally based methods also known as community policing involves making the members of the public part of the policing unit by encouraging them to report possible crime incidences. The strategy encourages the members of the public to respond to crime problems that affect them (Clancey, 2011). This strategy may be somewhat difficult to implement because of possible resistance from the members of the public. On the other hand, situational crime prevention strategies focus their attention on minimizing opportunities that enable people to commit crimes. In this respect, the strategy may increase the cost and risk of being caught as it minimizes the benefits of committing crimes. The last strategy focuses its attention on restorative justice. This strategy encourages the members of the public to reintegrate criminals into the societies as a way of helping them to stop committing crimes (Klimasauskiene, 2014). Each of these strategies addresses crime in one way or the other, but from different perspectives.

Current literature on crime prevention indicates that crime prevention strategies vary depending on geographical regions, time and institutional frameworks. This notwithstanding, some regions have been linked to high crime rates than others. This variation may be attributed to implementation of crime prevention strategies as well as differences in crime prevalence (Salehi, 2012). While this is the case, some crime prevention strategies have been regarded as the best crime prevention strategies while the effectiveness of others has been questionable. CPTED strategy has been regarded as one of the best strategies in curbing crime (Clancey, 2011). This strategy takes into consideration environmental factors while devising methods of preventing crimes (Klimasauskiene, 2014). In spite of this fact, current literature indicates there is no single method of curbing crime that is better than other methods because each method has its shortcomings. For example, social development approaches may be long-term rather than short-term. As a result, these approaches may take long before their effectiveness may be felt in curbing crimes. On the other hand, community policing strategy may as well take time before the members of the public embrace it. Other methods of curbing crime have their own shortcomings. This notwithstanding, current literature on efficiency of community policing indicates that reforming administration in police force can enhance the effectiveness of community policing. Although literature review on this issue is scarce, authors attributing inefficiency in community policing to employees’ resistance hold this view (Yilmaz, 2013).

Methodology

The proposed research study will employ a systematic review research method in collecting and analyzing the data. This research method will involve defining and outlining the research questions as well as hypotheses and then collecting data to test the hypotheses. The intention of conducting systematic review will be to establish the extent at which community policing in Melbourne has been effective in achieving its mandate. In this respect, data collection process will involve searching for all reading materials that cover the subject matter using key words. After collecting all those reading materials, the researcher will then evaluate those reading materials against the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria in this case will set the minimum criteria that each reading material for the proposed study will have to meet. Based on the inclusion criteria, poor quality reading materials will be excluded from the study (Clancey, 2011). This will leave the researcher with reading materials that meet the inclusion criteria. The next step will involve assessing the findings for the reading materials as well as combining those findings to establish the extent at which community policing will be effective in preventing crimes in Melbourne. In a nutshell, the process of combing findings from different reading materials that will be included in the study will form the data analysis process. This process will analyze the study’s results using descriptive statistics.

 

 

 

References

Clancey, G. (2011). Crime risk assessments in New South Wales. Eur j crim policy res, 17, 55-67.

Klimasauskiene, D. (2014). The model of criminal activity and effective cartel deterrence. Ekonomika, 93(3), 51-66.

Levi, M., & Maguire, M. (2004). Reducing and preventing organized crime: an evidence-based critique. Crime, law & social change, 41, 397-469.

Salehi, E. (2012). The impacts of environmental factors in crime occurrence and safety of Tehran’s citizens. Crime law soc change, 58, 457-467.

Yilmaz, S. (2013). Tailoring model in reforming police organizations towards community policing. Journal of organizational change, 26(5), 897-924.