Sample Paper on Effects Of (ISIS) In Syria

As the United States and other states on the international platform consider numerous changes in terms of policy direction for Syria, The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), which is viewed as one of the most vicious terrorist groups in the world today, runs amok in the country.[1] The presence of ISIS in Syria is therefore perceived as a threat to the stability of global peace and security. This is largely because ISIS has proved to be powerful in interfering with normal operations in more than six countries in the Middle East.[2] In addition, in situations where the US operate in ways that will flash ISIS out of their comfort zones in Syrian and Iraq, the countries may never regain their past normalcy in terms of operations. The rampage arising from the operations of the ISIS have made it difficult for the United States and the UN Security Council to eliminate President Bashar Al- Assad’s regime in Syria.[3]

If the International body operates on the objective of eliminating ISIS and replacing President Al- Assad’s regime with a plural and politically relevant government, there will be need for a political military alternative for the extremist group and the government.[4] This is a realizable objective considering that there are thousands of members of the Syrian army whose support is to oust Assad’s regime while at the same time eliminating the ills and homicides propagated by the ISIS.[5] Through sufficient training and the provision of arms and support, these pro-Syria groups can be deployed to secure the country from any form of extremism hence establish an alternative territory to that of Assad’s regime.[6] The resulting government upon the defeat of the reigning regime and ISIS would constitute the people who fought the country. In addition, a transition government would also be composed of those with the ability to run government operations for the benefit of the Syrian population.[7]

It is vital for the international community to provide arms and support for the opposition groups in Syrian to ensure protection of the vulnerable citizens. There is also need for a long-term solution to end the conflict. This is because Syrians need a government that is motivated enough to ensure their security.[8] In addition, lasting peace in the country and in the Middle East can also be ensured if terrorist groups are completely eliminated as Assad’s regime is compelled to a negotiated transition system.[9] This may seem as a possible solution to the unending stalemate but it may take much time considering the unmovable stands by the political class and the interested parties.[10]

The process of liberating Syria from the possibility of collapsing as in the case of Somalia under the militant group, Al Shabaab, is a time consuming process. The USA cannot undertake this endeavor alone. It will require one of the largest multilateral campaigns since the delivery of Kuwait from Iraq in 1991.[11] For this undertaking to succeed, it will also be important to ensure full cooperation from different states and regional governments. These actors contribute to the assembling, equipping and training the combined military forces towards a specific objective.[12] In addition, it will be the responsibility of the United States to provide the necessary leadership on the best strategy of engaging ISIS and President Assad’s regime.[13]

The long duration that has been taken to ensure an end to the crisis in Syria is an indication that the country has never been a major priority to the international community. However, with the eruption of the ISIS and the unending threat to destabilize international peace through violent attacks against innocent civilians and governments, there is need for an intervention form the international community.[14] The need for a fundamental course of correction to Syrian policy must be perceived as the only objective through which president Bashar Al- Assad’s regime can be replaced with an alternative government that can ensure lasting security to the Syria.[15] Limited possibilities of intervention into the crisis may be an indication that the international community does not have an objective of altering the possible effects of ISIS involvement. These effects may have on the political, economic, and cultural and landscape of the country.[16]

1.1 Background of the Study

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, popularly known as ISIS is operates as an unrecognized state and jihadist terrorist group in Iraq and Syria.[17] The group claims that it draws it authorities form God (Allah) and their objective is to liberate all Muslims from the ills caused by the crusaders. Through its religious authority, the groups claim that it has the powers to murder, maim torture, and rape those who are in opposition with their objectives.[18] This explains why since 2014, there have been incidences of mass murder and torture of different individuals in the states of Iraq and Syria. ISIS also threatens to expand its authority in other country in the Middle East, which includes Jordan, Kuwait, Israel, Lebanon, and Palestine.[19] Through its uncompromising interpretation of the doctrines defining Islamic religion, the group has on numerous occasions claimed responsibility for brutal killing of Christians and Shia Muslims in Iraq and Syria.[20]

ISIS acquired its popularity in 2014 following a clash within Al-Qaeda, a militant group that had been terrorizing different countries in the Middle East and was a threat to global security. The conflicts between different members of Al–Qaeda began when it fought other Jihadist groups that were active patrician in the Syrian war.[21] These groups were Jabat and Nusra Fronts which were also Islamic militant groups fighting for the same course as Al-Qaeda. Opposing members in Al-Qaeda were of the view that fighting against Al- Nustra Front was an ill-motivated move considering that Al- Nusra had always supported Al-Qaeda in its endeavors.[22]

The split in Al-Qaeda led to the formation of the ISIS and the ISIL, whose bid to establish their authority and power began in the northern parts of Iraq and spread into Syria,. The group attracted individual from different regions around the world.[23] These individual were largely those drawn from members of Al-Qaeda who were uncomfortable with the democratic initiatives that had characterized the group. Furthermore, the violent nature of ISIS also inspired more youth especially those converted from Christianity to join the course of protecting Muslims and the religion from any form of infringement by the christen population.[24] Through a series of attacks, ISIS has been able to establish its authority in many cities in Iraq and Syria such as Samaria, Mosul, and Tikrit.[25] In addition, the brutal nature of their attacks and the use of relatively sophisticated weapons necessitated attacks against Iraq and Syrian military and this explains why it was easier for the Kurdish wing of the ISIS to take control over oil hubs in Kirku in Iraq. The attacks against that government forces has been effective as it helped ISIS in taking control over the borers in Syria and Jordan.[26]

The involvement of ISIS in the governing processes that define Iraq has been considerd a threat to the stability of the controls considering that this group has threatened to overturn the government and take control over essential government operations.[27] Their success in Iraq and the involvement of the group in matters of Syria has not only changed that nature of the civil war in Syrian but has also led to numerous spillover effects outside the country.[28]

There is a sequence and tendency in the operations of terrorist groups in the Middle East. Since the establishment of Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) in 2004, terrorist activities have often been driven by the desire to drive the United States and its allies out of Iraq.[29] However, the unending presence of the US in Iraq led to the notion that these groups had to engage in more violent attacks to demonstrate their power and abilities in the presence of the US government.[30] The killing of the Al-Qaeda leader in 2006 led to a transformation of the group to become the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). This group also expanded its mandate considering that it had the desires to establish itself as a Muslim only state. This led to the recruitment of Sunni Muslims as its members. These members were indoctrinating to the practice of extreme jihadist activities to drive away Christian and Shia Muslims from Iraq.[31] The civil war in Syria and the involvement the Al-Qaeda also led to the development of an assumption tha the militant group could continue with its expansionist strategies of ensuring the establishment of Muslim states in the Middle East.[32]

The formation of the ISIS in 2014 was perceived as an indication that the desire to expand its territories was eminent. Shortly after the establishment of the group in it took control over the northern and the northeastern parts of Syria. [33]

1.2 ISIS as the strongest and most influential militant group

Since the establishment of the ISIS in 2014, the terrorist group has been able to expand it military forces from about 10, 000 men to more than 90, 000 men drawn from Iraq and Syria. In a period of not more than 3 months, the terrorist group has been able to establish its presence in Iraq by taking control of cities and oil fields.[34] In addition, the acquisition of the northern, northeastern parts of Syria and the section of Raqqa as its capital for operations had intensified the perception that the military group is relatively powerful compared governments of in Syria and in Iraq. [35]

The major source of power for the ISIS is the presence of the Al-Qaeda branch of Iraq and more than 3,000 jihadists drawn from different countries around the world. These are majorly converts who are dissatisfied with the activities of the US and other western countries against Islamic states in the Middle East.[36] The power of this terrorist group has also been strengthens by numerous attacks that it has conducted in prisons enabling it to recruit more jihadist as part of it military.[37]

In terms of the personnel responsible for the development of strategies, ISIS has been able to secure the services of thousands of military and government experts from their former regime in Iraq and dissatisfied government and opposition official from Syria. Financially Saudi Arabia and Qatar, despite constant denials, have been accused of financing the operation of ISIS. In their defense, ISIS has often claimed that its financial support comes from the spoils of war.[38] This according to ISIS is possible since overtime they took over the control of cities and towns; they robbed banks, jeweler stores, and historical relics. In addition, through forced taxation on members of the cities that they rob, and the sale of oil and gas to different countries such as turkey, Jordan and Lebanon, ISIS has enough finances to support all its operations.[39]

In terms of military arms, the terrorist group has been able to take over Iraq and Syria government arsenals and is has enabled the group to obtain state of the art weapons. In addition, by taking over the control of Mosl Airport in Iraq, and Tabqa Air base in Syria, the military group has been able to seize military jets, helicopters, air defense weapons, armored vehicles.[40] This machinery has played a role in influencing the large following the ISIS has in different parts of the world. In addition, the military group has also been perceived to be a threat to the global peace considering its ability to topple governments and established military.[41]

1.3 Statement of problem

Terrorism had become a global menace considering numerous instances of terrorist activities in different parts of the world. The civil war and the deplorable situations in the country have made it an easy target to terrorism.[42] This is argyle because the weak government forces, undecided opposition, less attention from the international community and a vulnerable population. With the advent of terrorist attacks against innocent civilians in Syria and Iraq, it would be important to identify the possible effects of continued attacks on the livelihoods of the Syrian population, Bashar Al-Assad’s government, and the international peace standards.[43]

The intention of ISIS supersedes those of other militant groups that have existed in the past. This is because, the group intends to use its military might to establish itself as an authority in Syria and Iraq. Such establishments will not only affect the operations of these states but it will also be an indication that the states will begin these operations according to the desires of the militant groups.[44]

The underlying effects of the comfits instigated against Syria must be perceived as those aimed at destabilizing the economic, political and cultural stability of the nation. Such levels of instability in Syria are considerd as threats to the Middle Eastern region largely because Syria just like any other state in the region had been part of numerous bilateral and multilateral agreements and treaties that define the relationship between state and regional bodies.[45] An introduction and establishment of the ISIS as the governing body in Syria would mean the abolishment of all the agreements between Syria and other nations in the region and on the international platform. Such effects are not only detrimental to the wellbeing of the citizens but also that of countries, which were perceived to be dependent on Syria for numerous benefits.[46]

The operations of ISIS can be compared to those of Al-Shabaab militant group in Somalia. Since the beginning of civil wars in the country, Somali government was in constant battles with opposing militant groups.[47] The desires by these groups to forcefully establish a government defined by the Sharia law was a contributing factor to the collapse of the state of Somali. In addition, the negligence of the international community on the affairs and safety of Somalia contributed to mass casualty and the success of the Islamist militants over government armies. The deplorable conditions that are currently a characteristic of Somalia can be understood from the incompetence of the militant groups on matters of government operations.

It is possible to argue that the effects of the prevailing situation in Syria, especially with the involvement of the ISIS, will eventually help the opposition to oust President Assad’s regime. However, the plausibility of this argument can be understood from the assumption that both factions of the war have the desire to establish their authority in the country. The conduct can be perceived as relatively complex considering that the decision by members of the opposition to join forces with ISIS makes it relatively complicated for other countries such as the US to join forces against Assad’s regime.[48] This is an indication that for the successful ousting of President Assad and the establishment of an effective government it will be important for the international community to also ensure the elimination of ISIS and its sympathizers in the opposition.[49]

1.4 Thesis statement

The eruption and the establishment of the ISIS in Syria play a major role in the prolonged civil war. The nature of this war is constantly changing considering that being a terrorist group the involvement of ISIS has attracted other forces such as the United States and the international community, which perceives ISIS a threat to global peace.

1.5 Research question

  • What are the political, social, and economic effects of ISIS involvement in the Syrian War?
  • How does the government of Syria use the presence of ISIS to instigate its own attacks against innocent civilians?






2.0 Literature review

2.1 Economic effects of the Syrian war

According to Rivers, in the book The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria: the History of ISIS/ISIL, since the beginning of the civil war in Syria and the subsequent emergence of the ISIS, the economic stability of the country and the greater Levant region has been affected in numerous ways.[50] The country, in the view of Cordesman in the book Iraq Crisis, has witnessed high death rates, influx of refugees to neighboring countries, and an increasing number of internally displaced persons.[51] Through these demographic changes, it is possible to argue that the involvement of the ISIS in the Syrian war provides a platform for the execution of the civilian population. Such execution in the perspective of Casey-Maslen, Stuart in the book The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2013, plays a role in the reduction of potential and actual workforce that is essential for the economic growth Syria.[52] In addition, an influx in the population of refugees in neighboring countries can be perceived to connote a stage of intellectual skills and knowledge. Such skills could have been used in the implementation of numerous developmental projects in Syria. Additional economic effects include the reduction of knowledge capacity among school going children and adults. This is because the quality of education provided in camps of low quality.[53]

The involvement of ISIS in Syria is an indication that the country may face serious economic challenges considering the weak status of its economy since the beginning of the civil war in 2011. Massive destruction and looting of property is not only meant to exacerbate the harsh economic conditions but it is meant to make Syria relatively powerless in making decision  on matters of local  and international importance.[54]

Through mass looting of property in Syria, ISIS will be an established power in the Middle East considering its economic welfare that has been growing since the looting and robbery exercises that have characterized their activities. In addition, it is also possible to argue according to Rivers that the ability of the decision by military groups to take over oil filed in Syria may be perceived to be detrimental to the economies of countries that were in bilateral trade agreements with Syria.[55] This is because such states will be compelled to seek alternative source of oil or make additional agreements with ISIS. This as Casey- Manslen argues is meant to ensure major income for ISIS and major economic frustrations for countries such as Lebanon and Yemen, which were trade partners with Syria.[56]

Continued conflicts characterized by brutal killings and mass murder in Syria will also contribute to the economic degradation of the country considering that the country will experience a shortage in human labor. This also in the view of Casey- Manslen means that the rate of production for economic growth might reduce thereby reducing the country’s Gross Domestic Product.[57]

The techniques of forced conquest as instigated by ISIS are also bound to affect the economic growth of the Arab and Islamic states. This is largely because of fear among investors. Low investment rates, in the view of McHugo in the book Syria From the Great War to Civil War, in the region and in Syria would mean that the region would be relatively inactive in terms of economic growth.[58] In addition, Casey-Maslen supports this assumption by stating that it will be relatively complex to create structures that can attract investors into the region considering the expansionist ideologies and threats that have characterized the interventions by ISIS in Iraq and Syria.[59] While agreeing with these assertions Rivers argues that Limited foreign direct investments in any country are an indication of an economic turmoil and an increase in the rates of inflation.[60]

The involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war can also be used as an indicator of high levels of dependency on the international community. This is because low manpower, limited resources and constant threats and instances of war may make it relatively difficult for Syrians to practice any form of economic activities. This would mean that other countries would be compelled to provide humanitarian aid to Syria.[61] In addition, Syria may also become vulnerable to economic exploitations from opportunistic countries with the desire of making economic gains from the tribulations of the country. Despite these exploitations, neighboring countries may also be complied with witness massive economic losses considering the cost needed to set up infrastructure to host refugees and internally displaced persons in Syria.[62]

According to Sekulow, the economic effects of the Syrian war also cut across the welfare sector of Syria population.[63] Syria just as Iraq bears the brunt of direct loses even as the conflict drags down the country’s per capita welfare by about 14%. This is not entirely a loss to Syria but also countries in the neighboring Levant economies. The economic losses associated with these countries are in varying degrees with the per capita of countries such as Lebanon declining by about 11%. Other countries such as Jordan, Egypt, and Turkey have been witnessing an increase in their per capita losses.[64] The main reason, in the view of Sekulow, for these problems associated with the welfare of these countries is that the prohibition on trade with Syria has been a contributing factor in the dwindling per capita of the country. [65]In addition, the country has also witnessed more than 15% reduction in terms of its economic welfare while at the same time, negative economic aspects such as the destruction of capital destruction and loss of workers have been cited as the major contributors. In the neighboring countries the welfare effects of the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war emanates from the fact that there is a massive flow of Syrian refugees and those displaced by war.[66]

It is important to note that with the increased intensity in terms of the nature and brutality of the war in Syria, the direct aggregate welfare decline is presumed to be overtaking the country’s per capita loss in terms of welfare. The economic shrink, in the view of Spark that has characterized the Syrian economy is due to the massive outflow of refugees and the high numbers of casualties resulting from constant battles between different factions in the Syrian war.[67]

The neighboring Levant economies according to Spark will be gaining considering that an influx of refugees will have a direct impact in the population.[68] This will not only increase the demand for goods and services to address matters of human needs, it will also provide a platform for the presence of human labor within these countries. These effects are bound to be more pronounced in Lebanon considering the high refugee to citizen ratio.[69] However, the geographical position of countries such as Egypt in relation to Syria will ensure a minimal effect due to the low refugee to citizen ratio in such countries. From a global perspective, Maidul Islam argues that there are bound to be limited effects on matters related to welfare. This is because the conflict does not have a major effect on the main distribution channels of important resources such as oil.[70]

Despite the presence of limited effects on the global platform, there is however direct effects on matter related to regional trade integration. These effects, according to Youngs, arise from the understanding that any form of economic disintegration in the economy of one country affects those of the other countries within the region.[71] The direct per capita income of Iraq for instance has been subject of interference since the eruption and the presence of ISIS in both Syria and Iraq. Youngs argues that for countries such as Egypt, Jordan and Turkey trade disintegration in Syria is considered the source of much larger losses.[72] Inasmuch as these countries do not experience any form of direct loss from the war, their inability to engage with Syria in meaningful trade discourses has been the cause of economic disintegration of the country. This therefore is an indication that the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian crisis will have a medium term economic effect on all Levant economies.[73]

Other than the welfare effects that threaten the economy of Syria and the surrounding Levant economies, Spark argues that the sector-based effects of the war are negative and sizeable across Syria.[74] This is because the involvement of ISIS and the continuous attacks against innocent civilians have led to some form of decline in the level of productivity within the country. This is an indication that one of the consequences of ISIS involvement in the Syrian war is related to destruction of capital and the loss of labor.[75] Inasmuch as other countries, such as Jordan and Lebanon are bound to register some form of expansion in different sectors of their economies, the influx of refugees in to the country, in the view of Sekulow would mean that there will be need for the governments of these countries to introduce policies aimed at the expansion of different aspects that define sector based wellbeing.[76]

In terms of regional trade, Bardes, Shelley, and Schmidt argue that the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war and the destructions that have characterized the war are bound to affect regional intra-Levant trade.[77]  This is in terms of the decline in the level of service productivity. In addition, limited resources to be used in the production of essential goods and services in different sectors are also bound to raise the cost of production. According to Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt this will lead to an increase of importations of these goods and services hence more financial resources will be spent on purchases of necessities at the expense of different developmental initiatives.[78] These effects are however bound to vary in different countries. The countries that do not share numerous trade ties with Syria will face limited negative effects on the development of their economies compared to countries such as Lebanon, which have a direct association and many trade agreements with Syria.[79]

2.2 Political effects

An effective understanding of the possible effects of the involvement of the ISIS in Syrian war can be understood through an analysis of the three axes that have characterized this war. Through such an understanding, Casey- Maslen argues that it will be possible to identify the political effects of the war on the local, regional, and global landscape.[80] The revolution in Syria and the involvement of ISIS in the affairs of the country can be traced back to the first axis that was popular referred to as the civil uprising. This uprising in the view of McHugo generated into a civil war between members of the opposition, the general public and interested foreign partners against President Bashar Al- Assad’s regime.[81] Throughout the civil war president, Assad and his Alwaite sect were engaged in constant battles with the opposition members of the country, which was largely composed of the Sunni Muslims. At this point, the civil unrest was an internal affair that was a reflection of the level of dissatisfaction and political literacy in Syria.[82]

In the second axis of the war, the internal conflict began to grow into a regional affair with different member states of the Arab League sanction President Assad’s regime to accept the desires of the civilian population and resign as a government.[83] It is important to note that note all members of the Arab League were in support of the opposition and this explain the reasons for the development of a cold war relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Assad’s government, which was largely dominated by the tolerant Shia Muslims, was in opposition with the Sunnis who derived much of their support from other Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia.[84]

The ultimate axis is of the regional civil war that had characterized the people of Syria began with the introduction of global actors. Different members of the UN Security Council had conflicting desires in the war. The Russians and the Chinese for instance were in support of Assad’s regime while other members of the council such as the United States, Britain, and France were in support of the opposition. The support by the US and its allies towards the opposition was based on allegations of brutal attacks by President Assad’s regimen innocent civilians. The inconsistencies and counter accusation that characterized the war, in the view of Ayoob in the article Will the Middle East Implode?, led to the eruption of ISIS in northern Iraq, which had the objective of instituting its dominance and ousting government under Shi Muslims.[85] This was executed through brutal and mass killings of innocent civilians and sympathizers of Shia governments. The desire to introduce strict Islamic laws as part of their governance was however met with criticisms and rebellion from different quarters within the region, and this escalated the nature of the conflict.[86]

The current situation in the Syrian war can be perceived as a moment when Iraq instituted its rule over Syria. Since the appearance of ISIS, there has been a temporary overturn of the distinctions that defined president Assad’s regime and the opposing rebels, the proxy conflicts between Saudi Arabia and Iran and the sour relationships between the US and Russia. This is because the brutal nature of the ISIS attacks has prompted previously disagreeing factions to ensure the creation of a different type of coalition that could introduce strategies on how to confront ISIS. The expansionist ideology and the introduction of stringent Islamic laws on previously democratic nations have also prompted criticism from different actors terming the terrorist group as a threat to international security.[87]

The ability of ISIS to gain control of airports, government armories, and oil fields is an indication of the growth of political power. This is in itself a threat to international security considering that such power can be used in the expansion of its ideologies, propagation of jihad endeavors, and the collapse of relatively unstable stats in the region. The ability of the United Nations to ensure lasting security to all member states can be questioned triggering question relating to the political relevance of the organization as an n international body.[88]

Since mid-2014 when ISIS announced its intention of establishing a caliphate, which is a defining feature of its political vision, the militant group has continued to demonstrate its ability to establish infrastructures of governing. This according to Bardes, Shelley, and Schmidt is an indication of the possibility of rising tension in different regions that form the Levant.[89] Existing evidence on the capacity of the militant group to ensure successful government infrastructure have been demonstrated through the ability of the ISIS to ensure effective governance in rural and urban areas of Syria. In Raqqa for instance, ISIS has been able to develop a holistic administrative system which is largely defined by the presence of religious, humanitarian, education, judicial and security infrastructure projects.[90] This according to Sekulow is in itself a threat to President Bashar Al-Assad’s government considering that the activities of this militant group have demonstrated their capacity to ensure growth and development in different parts of the country.[91]

It is important to note that prior to the Syrian crisis in 2011, major complaints against Al-Assad’s regime were those focused on the failure by the government to ensure adequate and equal infrastructural development in different areas that define Syria.[92] The politics of inequality in the view of Youngs are currently being solved by ISIS despite the brutal nature of its attacks against those who oppose their system of governance. ISIS through the introduction of effective governance structures has demonstrated its ability to ensure effective governance in Levant by introducing two broad categories of governance.[93] These include the administrative and service oriented categories. In the former, ISIS has integrated expert opinion in the development of administrative structures that encompass sectors such as courts, religion, education, and local governance.

The caliphate ideology, which according to Sparks is largely defined by the institutionalization of a religion based political system in Syria, is bound to lead to conflict between different religious factions whose doctrines have been eliminated from the ideology of ISIS.[94] The positive effect of this approach towards governance according to Lombardi is the possibility that ISIS may attract a relatively larger population of civilians and government official who share in the ideology of the militant group.[95] This type of governance structure also would necessitate the possibility of the rise of an opposing group with the desire of introducing democratic systems in post Assad Syria.[96]

The service-oriented sector of ISIS governance structure in the view of Lombardi is also bound to ensure growth and development of different regions in the Syrian jurisdiction. Through these programs, ISIS has continuously ensured equal distribution of resource among its loyal. This is considered as a political threat especially within countries that surround Syria.[97] The involvement of ISIS according to Spark is bound to stir the possibility of ideological shift within the Middle East. It is also bound to refute the role of different governments in the delivery of effective services to their population.[98] ISIS is considered as a militant group that endeavors to introduce strict religious measures as part of its governing principles. Its self-given duty of governing the religious and political lives of all Muslims in the view of Sekulow threatens to destroy liberal government within the Middle East. This approach to political discourse institutes the leaders of the movement as both religious and political officials.[99]

One of the greatest threats of this approach towards political discourse is the possibility of merging religious and political elements. The effect of this threat in the view of Lombardi is the institutionalization of religious and political figures that play the role of making and implementing religious and political laws.[100] ISIS when perceived from this perspective can be said to in the process of introducing a dictatorial system of government. Through this system, self-proclaimed leaders of the terrorist group will play the role of determining all aspects of their subjects hence limiting the amount of freedom and rights provided to their subjects. In addition, the introduction of strict laws developed on the basis of extremist religious ideologies is also bound to generate opposition from the global perspective.[101] This is due to an infringement of the UN Declaration of Human Rights, which provides every individual with certain rights that may be affected or denied if the ideological approach of ISIS towards politics is to succeed. [102]

ISIS approach to the establishment of an effective system of governance in Syria through the exclusionary method has been perceived as one of its strengths. This in the view of Spark has also been viewed as the point of weakness of this organization considering that the elimination of resistance is only bound to create fear and tension on their subjects.[103] This is an indication that in the event that if ISIS succeeds in taking over the government of Syria, the organization will be operating on the basis of illegitimate power. The levels of dissatisfaction with the governing principles of ISIS according to Lombardi may lead to the eruption of a new but different terrorist group with the intention of ousting ISIS and establishing its authority within Syria.[104]

The elimination of resistance in different political factions in Syria has seen ISIS destroy essential structures and technical skills necessary in the operations of cities without replacing them with better systems. Failure to replace dismantled government institutions with sustainable alternatives in the view of Sekulow will lead to insufficient supply of essential resources such as electricity to sustain the Syrian economy.[105] The consequence of this level of failure may not be the destruction of the organization’s political vision, instead will lead to political and economic devastation in cities considering lack of essential system for structural and infrastructural developments.[106]

The violent nature of ISIS attacks in Syria also raises questions concerning the ability of this militant group to ensure the establishment of sustainable political and economic structures. This according to Maidul Islam is because the development of effective trade and political unions with neighboring countries will require ISIS to embrace alternative ways of settling disputes and enduring mutual developments.[107] These include negotiations and compromises. However, Lombardi argues that with the brutality of this organization against state and civilian population, it is possible to perceive Syria as a failed state under the control of ISIS. Despite its ability to demonstrate its intent to commit resources in the development of effective government structures, ISIS has the responsibility of demonstrating its capacity to develop long-term plans for different state institutions for an ideological perceptive.[108] In addition, the threat of ISIS must also be conceived from a regional and global perspective considering that its expansionist ideology may threaten the existence of democratic principles from a regional perceptive.

The rise and prosperity of ISIS according to Russell is largely founded on its ability to spread propaganda against Shia Muslims and Christians in Syria. The use of propaganda is not only meant to indoctrinate different individuals within the organization and increase tension within the country.[109] The use of propaganda as a political approach towards gaining administrative power may have both positive and negative effects on the eventual structures of governance acquired by ISIS. From a positive perspective, it is possible for ISIS to use its propaganda as a tool for gaining political millage against President Bashar Al-Assad’s government.[110] This in the view Lombardi will not only increase the political power and presence of the organization but also increase its popularity in terms of support that it attracts from the Syrian population.[111]

The type of Propaganda used by ISIS in advocating for its interest must be perceived as an approach towards separating the Syrian population. This is because ISIS is largely populated by Sunni Muslims and their agenda revolve around establishing governance in Syria and Iraq to solidify the strength of this group of Muslims. The separationist ideology according to Lombardi threatens to divide the country and introduce different levels of inequality especially in matters related to the distribution of resources and the provision of essential security procedures.[112] The success of separationist ideology and propaganda is considered to have a lasting impact on the development of an opposition in Syria. This is largely because the threat and fear that ISIS continues to propagate in Syria will threaten the existence of an opposing team. This according to Russell is considerd as a threat to the existence of a democratic dispensation and liberal principles in Syria.

2.3 Social effects

The involvement if ISIS in Syria can be a perceived as a threat to international security and peace considering the possible intentions by the terrorist group to create religious intolerance among members of diverse religious denomination. The propagation of jihadist sentiments and the brutal killings of those in opposition of the Islamic regulations may result in religious wars.[113] This is because failure to tolerate and respect the doctrines of other religious groups, according to Erlich in the book Inside Syria: The Backstory of Their Civil War and What the World Can Expect, may lead to the development of the idea that Islam is in need for some form of domination against other religious groups.[114] A possible war between the threatened religious groups and Islam will not only destabilize peace but also create high levels of hostilities in countries characterized by plurality in terms of religion.[115]

The killings that have characterized the activities of ISIS in Iraq and Syria can be perceived as threat to generational growth. This is because through these murders it is possible for the Syrian population to experience the absence of low population of the youth in the future years. The youth have been considered as active participants in the Syrian war.[116] This is an indication that they form a large part of the population that kills and is killed. Frequent killings will result in generational gap hence inconsistent continuity in terms of population growth rate.

The involvement of the ISIS in Syria was is perceive d to create some form of psychological torture on the enemies of the militia group. This is because these killings have been deliberately designed for broadcast as a way of propagating the intentions of the militia group against its enemies.[117] In addition, it has also built its reputation as a violent and extremely brutal sect. Their ability to win the prestige of horror can also be perceived as a technique that the group uses to advance its ideologies on the harmless and fearful Syrian citizens.[118]

The use of child soldiers to act on behalf of the militia group in propagating mass and brutal murder can be perceived as a trait that increases the possibility that children will develop behavior that is deviant from societal norms. It is also possible according to Best and Hanhimaki to view this behavior as a tendency towards the development of a community that is socialized in accordance with extremist ideologies.[119] Inasmuch as this creates the possibility of future presence of the militia group in Syria, it also denies the Syrian community an opportunity to raise responsible citizens who will ensure that the growth and development of the country is in accordance with the prevailing norms.[120]

The retrogressive nature of the religious philosophy propounded by ISIS could also lead to the development of extremist teachings amongst sympathizers and supporters of the terrorist group. This would be used as platforms for the recruitment of more members especially those interested in the philosophies and the operations of the group.[121] It is also possible to argue that the deplorable living conditions that have continued to characterize the life of Syrians since 2011 can be used in explaining the reasons why more youth are attracted to joining the terrorist organization. The promise of financial gains and military training often inspire the youth from such backgrounds hence exacerbating the possibility of an influx of Syrian youth into the sect.[122]

ISIS is a militant group whose main objective ids to advocate for the rights of the Sunni Muslims who have been perceived as the discriminated group since the 2003 during the US war against Iraq. The killing Saddam Hussein marked the beginning of a feeling of social exclusion and marginalization of the Sunni Muslims.[123] The rise of ISIS according to Young et al was therefore intent by the Sunni Muslim to reclaim their political, economic, and social glory in the Middles eastern region.[124] Despite this intention, Lombardi argues that the extremist ideology of the Sunni Muslims had led to the increase of high levels of discrimination Christians and Shi Muslims in both Iraq and Syria. ISIS when assessed from this perspective can be said to be popularizing a separationist ideology, which is a threat to the wellbeing of other members of the Syrian and Iraqi population.[125]

Social cohesion and integration is often considerd as an important aspect in the development of any society. However, Young et al argues that the creation of divisions within any society often leads to the rise of possible conflicts on the basis of different ideological principles.[126] the activities of ISIS against Shia Muslims and Christian does not only have a regional effect on the wellbeing of already established societies such as Lebanon and turkey, instead the effect can be perceived to have extended to other regions of the world. An attempt by the ISIS to advocate for intolerant religious ideologies, in the view of Lombardi creates a negative impression on the intentions of other Sunni Muslims in other regions around the world.[127] In addition, though the brutal attacks, the perception of other members of the society from a global perspective will learn to associate Islam with extremist and violence.

The violent and brutal nature of ISIS attacks against civilians and anti-ISIS institution in an indication of compulsive alignment to the group or the risk of torture and murder. This from a sociological perspective is bound to lead to the development of deviance among different factions of the society.[128] According to Russell, the development of deviance is related to the assumption that the forceful admission of individuals into ISIS develops dissent against the organization and its supporters.[129] Any form of discomfort among the subjects of ISIS can be considerd as the root cause of the development of other intolerant groups. ISIS by virtue is an organization whose beginning was from dissent and the forceful intent by the Americans to oust Sunni regime.[130] This led to the formation of the group hence the prevalence of brutal murder against and planned attacks against the USA, its allies and sympathizers within Iraq and neighboring Syria. Failure by the international community to institute measures that could prevent the possibility of the eruption of an opposing group in Iraq in the view of Lombardi can also be cited as the reasons for the probable rise of an additional group in Syria.[131] This could not only lead to violence in thee already damaged society but could also lead to the possibility of a genocide against those perceived as enemies of the warring factions.

Religion is considerd an essential factor in the development of any society. This is because the principles and doctrines that define religious practices often seek to ensure the unity of different personalities towards a common belief.[132] In addition, one of the major teachings of religion is to advocate for tolerance especially in diverse societies. Through the invasion of ISIS into Syria would lead to the development of a unilateral community defined by the tenets of Sunni Islam. This according to Spark will not only be a denial of other members of the Syrian community an opportunity to exercise their rights but it will also be a demonstration of the level of intolerance by ISIS.[133] The development of a society defined by the extremist ideologies of the ISIS will also be an indication of structural changes within Syria. Such changes will not only affect their operation of the community but it will also necessitate the need to introduce platforms of inculcating new religious ideologies to new converts in Syria.[134]

The use of propaganda as a political tool in propagating the interest of ISIS against President Bashar Al-Assad’s government and the Christian population may also be considered to be impacting differently on the societal wellbeing of the Syrian population.[135] One of the techniques that ISIS has continued to use in the process of recruitment is radicalization. Radicalized youth and children in the view of Lombardi are often indoctrinated into believing the propaganda advocated by the organization. This enables them to develop negative feelings and hate against the perceived enemies.[136] This explains the willingness of the members of these groups to participate in extreme measures towards complete termination of the enemy. For example, the decision by ISIS to engage in manslaughter, torture and to some extent suicide bombing can only be explained in terms of radicalization of the young population into believing the ideological perspective of their leaders in ISIS.[137]

2.4 Areas for further studies

The political, social and economic impact that the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war would generates in the country is largely meant to ascertain the vulnerability of Syria and the power that the militant group has in its territory in addition, it is also a way through which the militant group informs the rest of the world of the atrocities that the perceived enemies of ISIS often undergo. Despite this depiction, it is important to note that the publicity of ISIS overshadows the atrocities that President Bashar Al- Assad’s regime inflicts on the innocent civilians.[138]

Inasmuch as the brutal nature of the attacks by ISIS  often draw much attention from different quarters of the world, these activities cannot be said to be less ferocious than the undocumented and broadcasted killings that are perpetuated by the Syrian government. The spillovers from the atrocious activities by the Assad’s regime are only felt by those in charge of humanitarian aid whose anguish is often expressed by the frequent bombings by the government, which has contributed to the displacement of more than one third of the Syrian population.[139]

It is possible to argue that the presence of the ISIS has exacerbated the nature of conflict in Syria. This is because it has intensified the fronts from which attacks on civilian population can be accomplished by the competing factions. In addition, the pronounced nature of the ISIS attacks garnishes those attacks instigated by Syrian government.[140]

The involvement of ISIS in the Syrian crisis can be perceived from numerous perceptive. One of the ways through which this situation can be understood is through the perspective of a weak regime and the presence of an opportunistic terrorist group.[141]  The ability of ISIS to terrorize and take control over some parts of Iraq according to Sacklemore was considerd as a demonstration of the capacity of the militant group in relation to that of an existing government.[142] The radical and expansionist ideologies of ISIS coupled by a relatively weak opposition and government in Syria provided a perfect platform for ISIS advocate for territorial control.

The type and the level of force that ISIS has continuously used in advocating for its interest in Syria must be perceived from the local, regional, and global perspectives. Terrorism according to Devarajan has been considered as one of the greatest challenges in terms of global security.[143] The use of force and the media by ISIS is often meant to publicly display to the world the level of brutality that terrorist organizations can engage in to realize their objectives.[144] In addition, the decision by ISIS to invade Syria must not only be perceived as an expansionist ideology, it must also be understood from the perspective of the institutionalization of the system of radicalization in different regions within the Middle East to rally support against the perceived enemies.[145]






3.0 Methodology

3.1 Research design

The study will be based on both qualitative and quantitative approached to data. These data are bound to provide a description of approaches and views on the possible effect of ISIS on the Syrian war. Being a descriptive and analytical study, the paper will summarize and ensure the organization of data in a more effective and meaningful way. The descriptive approach to this research will also attempt the collection of data from different members of the population. This will be used in the determination of the current perception of the target population in respect to the identified variable to the study. The descriptive nature of this survey is based on the assumption that it attempts to assess and provide an interpretation to the prevailing situation in Syria.

The descriptive nature of this study will help in the recognition of the relationships that exist, the prevailing practices, prevailing attitudes, continuing activities and the effects that can be witnessed. The study will also be concerned with that which exists, as well as understanding its relationship with preceding events that have affected the prevailing circumstances.

 It will be derived from an in-depth study of the available literature in the university library. This will be realized through the use of numerous source of information such as academic journals, publications, bibliographical databases, and internet searches.

The literature used in this study will largely focus on the information regarding the development of the state of Syrian from the period of independence, different regimes that have governed the state and the wars that have also characterized Syria. In addition, the review will also focus on the function of wars in transforming the political landscape of the country. An in-depth study on ISIS, its fundamental beliefs and operations will also be used in understanding the possible effects of their involvement in the Syrian civil war.

3.2 Secondary data

An in-depth literature review will form the source of secondary data for this study. Through a systematic and a comparative approach to the study of available literature, it will be possible to assess publications based on their subject matter. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian conflict. This means that all the publications that will be used must focus on the political, social, and economic effects. In addition, the use of existing literature was also meant to provide information regarding the existing knowledge while at the same time identifying possible gaps throughout the study. The existing gaps in the study formed the basis of the questions in the questionnaire. The information gathered through the literature review process was also used to validate and verify information collected through the questionnaires.

3.3 Target population

The target population will be drawn from the university. This is because the institutions metropolitan in nature and therefore it will attract varied reactions from different quarters hence giving the study diversity in terms of thought. In addition, the diverse nature of the population at the university will also be used to ensure that the paper is objective in the data collected. The objectivity of data will be derived from the responses that the respondents will provide to the questions.

3.4 Data collection and Sampling

The samples for the target population will be selected through the systematic sampling technique. This is considerd as an unbiased way of sampling from the population considering that every member of this population has an equal chance of being selected as part of the sample. In addition, by targeting a population of intellectual, it is perched that every member selected as part of the sample population has the intellectual ability to decipher and deliberate on the questions before beginning the process of answering.

The data collect process will be open and voluntary. This will be ensured through the signing of consent forms for those interested in participating. Through these forms, the participants will acknowledge their willingness to be recruited and part of the research process. In addition, the voluntary nature of this process connotes that it will be permissible for any member of the sampled team to walk out of the survey at any moment for reasons best known to them. The interview process will be led by the researcher to provide guidance and clarification to the to the respondent as a way of ensuring that the answers provided are relevant to the questions asked

The sampled members of the population will also be involved in a second stage of the interview process which is a focus group discussing. This will be used in the collection of qualitative data considering that the participants will be provided with a platform on which they can share their sentiments and thoughts concerning Syria and the ISIS. In addition, through focus group discussions it will also be possible to make propositions on the best way forward to ensure the security of the civilians and the reinstatement of the Syrian state from Al-Assad and ISIS. The researcher to ensure those participants are guided to respond to the questions provided will facilitate the focus group discussion. In addition, the researcher will ensure equal participation of every respondent throughout the discussion.

4.0 Discussion

4. 1 Overview of the situation in Syria

Organized terrorist gangs have become part of an essential group in the understanding of the nurture of conflict in the contemporary society. This has been associated with among other factors the desire by different groups, especially in Islamic states to conquer power form the perceived oppressors.[146] The situation in the Middle East and in other parts northern of Africa is a demonstration of the extent to which groups motivated by radical religious ideologies can go to ensure some form of progress in the realization of their objectives.           [147] In addition, these groups have also been accused of using the vulnerable members of the society and those from other societies as a means of executing their activities such as brutal killing of those perceived as non-believers, looting businesses, and government offices. In other instances, the youth, who comprise a large percentage of these terrorist gangs, have also been used in propagating instances of suicide bombing.[148]

The situation in Syria has been perceived as one that began in the form of civil and opposition uprising against different forms of discrimination by the President Bashar Al Assad’s government. This was largely because of the desire of the ruling party to provide financial resources to those presumed to be in support of the government. In addition, there were allegations that the government was in the process of developing inequality within the country especially by propagating disproportionate development initiatives throughout the county. The opposition and the oppressed civilians demanded fresh elections to be conducted in Syria. In addition, the rebelling population also demanded for equal distribution of public resources as this was part of the mandate of the government.[149]

The decision by different parties and nation states such as the United nations, the League of Arab States, The US, Russia, Saudi Arabia and China among other nations each supporting different factions of the conflict introduced changes to in the nature of the war. Initially the conflict was between the state, its civilian population, and the opposition. However, the involvement for external parties who provided support to different factions of the war led to the escalation of this conflict from an internal disturbance to an international armed conflict in 2011.[150] The main area of accusation by the US, the United Nations and its allies was that the Syrian government was using chemical weapons against the civilian population. This meant that it was necessary for the international community to protect the Syrian population from the atrocities caused by the Syrian government.[151] Those in support of the Syrian governments such as Russia, China, and Saudi Arabia have been accused of political and economic interests in Syria. This is because Russia for instance was accused of trading weapons with the government of Syria in exchange for oil. Their support to President Bashar Al-Assad’s government was therefore ill motivated and aimed at the destruction of the country at the benefit of their economies.[152]

Despite these accusations, the nature of the Syrian has also continued to change due to the introduction of Al-Qaeda as part of the opposition. The emergence of ISIS in Iraq exacerbated the nature of the conflict considering that this group of terrorist that had the desire of taking over the leadership of different states, which were largely propagating the interest of the west and those that were weakened by war. In Iraq, ISIS was in protest of the involvement of the United States in different project that defined the economy of the country. The desire to oust the ruling government and introduce a government operating on the basis of Islamic ideals meant that any foreign operating within Iraq was to be abiding by the requirements of the ISIS. The situation in Syria was inspired by the desire of ISIS to take over the country on the basis of a weak government.[153] This was exacerbated by the availability of a gullible population and the weapons necessary to execute the objectives of ISIS. In addition, President Bashar Al- Assad’s government was perceived to be bias against Sunni Muslims. Members of the ISIS subscribe to Sunni Islam.[154] The enmity between this group of Muslims and other religious denominations meant that there was need to conduct religious cleaning to protect the heritage and the supremacy of the Sunni. Syria and Iraq have become states in which conflicts are characterized by high levels of religious intolerance. This is because the ISIS through the Sunni doctrine, ISIS has been able to radicalize its youthful population into accepting killing and brutality against non- Sunni Muslims as part of the requirements of the religious deity.[155]

4.2 Political effects of ISIS involvement in Syrian war

An additional factor is that the alterations in the political landscape of Syria since the introduction of the ISIS into the conflict are related to the involvement of other foreign parties and internal parties to the conflict. President Bashar Al-Assad’s government through its military has been engaged in numerous instances of civilian killing.[156] This has also become a trend by ISIS making the civilians more vulnerable to ISIS attacks. The political landscape of the country is the process of transformation especially in Northern Syria where ISIS has already established its Islamic system of government.[157] In addition, through such establishments, the ISIS has been able to convince its subjects of its ability to provide the necessary political, economic, and religious structures that President Assad’s government has not been able to provide.[158] In addition, through the introduction of an education, system facilitated by the Islamic requirements the ISIS has been able to promote religious intolerance and discrimination within Syria making the nation and the international community divided along religious lines.[159]

The desire by the ISIS to gain control of the Syrian government can be used as an explanation of their involvement in the war. This was also exacerbated by the desire to establish itself as apolitical entity within the Middle East and on the international platform. Syria and Iraq are considered as strategic to the politics and economy of the Middle East. This is because of the availability of oil fields in these countries. The success of ISIS in the acquisition of these oil fields would mean that these countries would have to accept that ISSI has more powers on the international platform while bargaining for its political and economic interests.[160]

In addition, through the takeover of the administrative role of the government of Syria, ISIS aims at portraying to the Middle East and global world that it has the ability to operationalize a government other than engaging in terrorist related activities. This notion has however been affected by deplorable conditions that have characterized the areas governed by ISIS. The political, religious, and educational structures that have been established in these regions have been faced by financial and professional challenges. The conflict situation in the country has led to the shortage of professionals due to brutal killing and the increase in the population of Syrian refugees in other countries.[161] Administrative roles played by these institutions will continuously be affected by the absence of qualified personnel to operationalize the structures. This is an indication that inasmuch as ISIS may have played an active role in the introduction of novel structures of administration, failure to secure the expertise of professionals through their brutality is a leading factor in explaining the inefficiency of the structures.

The involvement of the ISIS in Syrian war has continues to generate mixed reactions from different factions on the global platform. Countries such as the United States and Britain that were initially supporting the opposition and the civilian population for the ousting of the Syrian regime have shifted grounds by joining the government in the fight against terrorist intervention in the conflict.[162]  This has been facilitated by the understanding that any acts of terrorism are illegal activities that should not be allowed to operate on any jurisdiction. The US military with the support of the UN has continued with its initiatives to oust ISIS from Iraq and Syria. This is because terrorism unlike civil unrest does not seek to generate any solutions to the existing problems but they are initiatives aimed at boosting the wellbeing of an individual leader of a minority groups.[163] These are groups that have for a long time accused the government of some form of discrimination and inequality in the distribution of resources. Their decision to take up arms with the aim of establishing a civilian government has been met by opposition due to lack of interest and knowledge concerning different factors that define the operationalization of a government.[164] In addition, the decision by different members of the international community to get involved in the Syrian conflict against the ISIS has been heightened by the tendency of the militant group to establish its authority in a more discriminative way compared to that of the national government. ISIS situation in Syria is therefore synonymous to a forced coup where the subjects are compelled to ascribe to specific and strict measures of life or risk murder and torture.[165]

4.3 Economic effects

On the economic platform, the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war has resulted in numerous economic losses to the country and to the international community. Syria is currently considered as a threat to economic progress due to the massive destruction of property that has characterized the country. In addition, through the involvement of the ISIS the country has been facing constant decrease in its gross domestic product of the country.[166] This has been facilitated by the limited number of human resource that is responsible for the operationalization of different factors of production. The prevalence of war has not only led to the killing of members of the workforce but also their migration into neighboring countries as an important part of the country’s workforce. This affects the Syrian economy negatively while in some way it helps in the increase of the workforce and levels of expertise in neighboring countries, especially those that allow refugees to seek employment opportunities. This means that the involvement of the ISIS in Syrian conflict has been beneficial and detrimental to the Syrian population due to the fluctuation in its workforce.[167]

In terms of local and foreign direct investments, the country has continued to face a decline in both local and foreign investors. This has continuously been facilitated by the growing levels of fear among investors on the possibility of massive losses due to the destruction of property and essential infrastructure that enhances communication and transportation throughout the country. In addition, through the involvement of ISIS the country has continued to experience shortage in terms of the availability of investments opportunities within the country.[168] This has been beneficial to other countries in the Middle East that are relatively peaceful because investors have been able to channel their investments sin the said countries. Despite the success of the neighboring countries in attraction more investors from Syria, there are also other foreign investors, especially those from the west who have continued to minimize their levels of investments.[169]  This is because of the growing fear within the Middle East of the expansionist ideologies of the ISIS. Countries such as Yemen and Turkey for instance have continued to experience the number of investor’s interest in their economies due to the potential threat posed by ISIS. The international community through regional and international organizations such as Arab League and the United nations have continues to encourage different parties within the international community to intervene in the Syria and Iraqi situation.[170] This is because of the desire to protect business entities that are supportive to the economies of countries within the Middle East. The protection of these economies involves the protection of investments that provide employment opportunities to members of the society while at the same time promoting the gross domestic product of these countries through their revenues in form of taxes.[171]

Prior to the conflict Syria was a major exporter of oil products to different countries on the global platform. This has however been curtailed by continuous conflicts that have been facilitated by different conflicting parties. The situation however changed with the introduction of ISIS into the conflict because of the intentions of the militant group. The militant group unlike the opposition and the civilian population, who were initially involved in the war, was interested in the acquisition of property.[172] This explains why it was involved in the looting of banks in Iraq and Northern Syria. In addition, through the activities of this militant group it has become relatively complicated for the government of Syria to continue with its trade negotiations and associations with different countries.[173] This is because ISIS has been able to acquire oil fields within Syria hence denying the said government an opportunity to progress in its trade objectives. In addition, countries that were involved in bilateral trade with Syria such as Turkey and Lebanon have been compelled to cut off and disqualify y the trade agreements due to the incapacitation of the country by ISIS.[174]

The government through its military and the UN peacekeeping military has been involved in numerous combats to facilitate the process of freeing the country from the irresponsible terrorist initiatives by ISIS. However, the difficulties in differentiating members of the militant group from the civilian population have been considered as a major impediment to the fight against ISIS. This means that the ISIS while using civilians as part of their members, it has continued to be successful in its desire to realize their objectives in the economic platform of the country. [175]

The economic losses experienced by the neighboring counties do not only arise from trade related practices but also from the inability of these countries to provide adequate resources to the refugees from Syria. This is because of the availability of limited resources to support the interests of their nationals and those of the refugees. Inadequate resources are a threat to the peaceful co-existence between the refugees and the citizens of the host countries. Jordan for example has been instrumental in the introduction and implementation of the refugee law as techniques through which the country can regulate the percentage of refugees involved in the provision of labor. This is considered as an attempt to protect the interest of the nationals against the advances and desires by the refugee population.[176]

In countries such as Lebanon, refugees with high levels of expertise in different areas have been charged with the responsibility of providing their services to other refugees and the national government. This has only been considered successful in situations where the government of Lebanon receives monetary assistance from the United Nations and other organizations in charge of refugee welfare.[177] This is an indication that the involvement of ISIS in the Syrian war has a direct an indirect impact of the country and its neighbors. Whereas the neighbors are affected by an influx of refugees and the involvement the insufficient availability of major economic resources, the country has also been facing challenges related to investor fears. In addition, through the involvement of the ISIS other international players such as The UN have been compelled to be actively engaged in the economic wellbeing of the refugees.[178]

4.4 Social effects

Socially, the involvement of ISIS has affected the social cohesion among different religious groups that previously existed in Syria. Prior to the involvement of ISIS, Syria was populated by Christian and Muslims who co-existed and worked in different sectors of the economy as citizens of the country. In addition, these groups not only practiced the requirements of their religious doctrines independently but also through the obligation of respecting the religious connotations of other religious groups.[179] The involvement of ISIS in the war introduced a new dimension of conflict. The terrorist group was not only engaged in the process aimed at ousting Assad’s regime but also a process aimed at cleansing Syria off all the other religious groups except the Sunni Muslims. Through such a brutal process, ISIS has been marked as an intolerant group inculcating radical teachings to the personalities and mindsets of its followers.[180]

In terms of population demographics, the ISIS involvement in the Syrian war has exacerbated the levels of killing and this is an indication the country will still be lacking a large population of youth. The youths are the major participants in the Syrian conflict. There is therefore high mortality rates related to the conflict considering that the participants of the war are engaged in actual killings through the use of established and crude weapons.[181] In addition, a continuation of the conflict will also lead to a reduction in the number of religious groups in Syria.[182] This is because religious intolerance has allowed members of the ISIS to massacre and brutally kill or maim members of conflicting religious groups. In addition, religious plurality and understanding that was once a characteristic of Syrah is in the process of elimination due to the severe levels of intimidation that members of the Syrian community have been involved in.[183]

There is a looming humanitarian crisis in Syria, especially among the internally displaced persons in the country. This is because ISIS has continuously used the phi light and suffering of these individuals in different media platforms as a way of demonstrating their ability to subject different populations to suffering. The militant group has also continued to deny humanitarian agencies to provide the internally displaced persons with food, shelter, and clothing hence subjecting the persons to heightened levels suffering.[184] In other instances, ISIS has used humanitarian aid as leverage against the international community to voice and accomplish its desires. This has been considered by the international community as the portrayal of the levels inhumanity and partiality that ISIS has continued to demonstrate throughout its endeavors. In addition, the involvement of the militant group in Syria has also been perceived as a threat to the existence of the future generation. This is because through radicalization, abduction, and killing of the young population, Syria is threatened in terms of the continuity of ISIS even after the death of the current generation.[185] It is the responsibility of the Syrian government and the international community to play the role of sensitizing its population of the essence of religious pluralism and teaching of religious doctrines that preach peace and human co-existence. This is one way through which the parties can reduce the levels of intolerance that are characteristics of the state. In addition, through such sensitization, it will be possible to enhance high levels of cohesiveness within the neighboring countries hence thwarting the intentions of the ISIS.[186]

The media has the responsibility of facilitating the spread of information to people across the world. However, ISIS has constantly been using social media platforms, such as Twitter to spread radical messages and to reveal some of the activities that mainstream media filter out considering the graphic nature of the images.[187] This is an indication that the ISIS is in the process of recruiting more members on virtual platforms. This increases the possibility of more attacks against innocent civilians in different regions on the global platform. There have been efforts by the management of different social network sites to shutdown websites, webpages, and social networking pages created by the ISIS. However, these intentions have always failed due to the absence of adequate security measures within these platforms that could necessitate necessary security checks especially during the creation of a social media account and the process of inviting friends.[188] Social networks have also been used as platforms of spreading hate messages and planning for different activities considering the possibility of creating anonymous accounts. this has been considered worsened the security situation on the global platform as more terrorist organizations such as Al-Shabaab in Somalia and Boko Haram in Nigeria have been involved in similar measures as ways of propagating the intention of the ISIS in different regions around the world. [189]

The involvement of the ISIS in Syria has increase the death rate of innocent civilians within the country. This is because of the involvement of multiple players in the war. Constant bombing, and direct attacks by the ISIS, Syrian government, the Opposition and the international community on perceived targets have led to the deaths of hundreds and thousands of innocent civilians.[190] While ISIS is engaged in the propagation of an extremist ideology against the civilian population, the other parties are engaged in the conflict to eradicate ISIS. These conflicts and the use of powerful weapons have rendered the civilian population relatively unprotected. This means that the situation in Syria is a characteristic of multiple crimes against humanity and war crimes.[191]

4.5 The role of Syria in winning against the ISIS

Since the introduction of the ISIS in the Syrian war, one of the players that have attracted major criticism is the government of Syrian under President Bashar Al- Assad. This regime has constantly been accused of endangering the lives of its citizens through brutal killing, shelving, imprisonment, and torture.[192] The continuous battle between the government and the opposition has also been cited as the grounds facilitating the prosperity of the ISIS within the country. This is because by fighting against each other, ISIS does not find any opposition in its endeavors and this explains why the terrorist group was able to seize cities in the Northern part of Syria. In addition, the decision by President Assad’s regime to continue holding onto the instruments of power despite its loss of legitimate authority can also be cited as a reason for the success of the ISIS. The regime, due to lack of citizen support, is relatively weak hence it does not have the capacity to ensure the protection of all its citizens in different regions within the country.[193]

The superior nature of the weapons and strategies implemented by the ISIS in areas presumed to be beyond government control can also be cited as the reason for the continuous success of the militant group. Its success does not only revolve around the acquisition of cities and looting of property, it also encompasses the ability of the group to continue radicalizing youth within Syria to participate in the process of securing the country from perceived enemies of the Muslim community.[194] The government of Syria despite the perceived incapacity has an essential role to play in the development of strategies that could help mitigate the intentions of the ISIS towards the country.[195]

One of the best approaches is for the government and the opposition to declare a seize fire. Through such a declaration, the war fronts will have been reduced to two; those in support and those against the ISIS. Combined efforts by the opposition and the cease fire after a declaration of ceasefire will boost the government in terms of manpower and intelligence capacity.[196] In addition, it is also the responsibility of the government and the opposition to devise techniques through which the citizens of Syria may begin supporting the faction of the war against the ISIS. Through such level of support, the government of Syria will have regained its legitimate and recognizable authority within the country.[197]

The success of the Syrian government in winning the war against ISIS is highly dependent on the support that the government receives from the international community. Currently, due to ideological and political differences between the government and the opposition, the international community is divided concerning the faction of the war to support.[198] However, through the development of alternative ways of addressing the conflict situation in the country, it will be easier to develop a united front against the ISIS with a unanimous support from the international community. The decision by opposing factions in the international community to support Syria in the fight against the ISIS is considered as an approach that would provide more military capacity that surpasses that of the ISIS.[199]

It is also important for the Syrian regime under President Assad to recognize the magnitude of the problem that the country is facing and resign to enable a new government to take over the leadership of the country. This will be aimed as salvaging the reputation of the Syrian government.[200] The reputation is based on the understanding that prior to the involvement of the ISIS in the Syrian conflict, President Assad and his regime were constantly accused of terrorizing and killing members of the opposition and the civilian community. This makes it irrational for Assad to be involved in eliminating the ISIS whose actions are synonymous to his regime. President Assad has been accused of lacking the moral backbone and political capability essential in handling the peaceful protest that had characterized the civil unrest in the country in 2011.[201] Instead of a peaceful deliberative approach to the crisis at the beginning, Assad’s regime led through brutal attacks, which later escalated to a civil conflict. However, the involvement of the ISIS and other international players in this conflict has made it an international armed conflict. Assad’s regime can be said to have initiated the conflict and therefore it has the responsibility of ending the conflict by resigning and providing the subsequent regime with the support and machinery that is considered necessary in realigning the objectives of Syrian in protecting its citizens and its territory from external and internal interference.[202]

The state of Syria is currently faced by numerous challenges necessitated by President Assad’s regime. All these problems could be solved if the regime ceased it shelling, bombing, and starvation initiatives against members of the opposition and their civilian sympathizers. In addition, the Syrian government must also release tens of thousands of prisoners who are currently subjected to starvation, torture, and sexual abuse.[203] This in addition to the ceasefire will act as a demonstration of respect and empowerment to the local government in areas that are no longer in control of his government. This has also been considered as an essential step in the realization of an overall political settlement, which could open ways for unrestricted humanitarian assistance, as all the Syrians will direct their battles against the ISIS.[204]

Terrorism in the view of the global community is a threat to international peace. This is because through terrorist activities, business trade, political alignments, and the social development of the states under attack often stretch to affect other countries and regions in the international community.[205] It is the responsibility of the government of Syria with the help of the opposition to develop strategies through which they can include the international community in the war against ISIS. This is because of the realization that the expansionist desires of the ISIS threaten the existence of neighboring countries in the Middle East. Currently, the war against ISIS in Syria is fought by the international community, the opposition, and the government in Syria[206]. However, these are not coordinated endeavors considering the divergence in terms of the interests of the concerned parties. The US and its allies while fighting to defeat ISIS in Iraq and Syria also desires to oust President Assad’s regime. The opposition while engaging in retaliatory attacks against the ISIS also aims at replacing the ruling government in Syria to address their grievances.[207] Consequently, President Assad’s regime while engaging in war to eliminate the threat posed by ISIS in terms of the seizing the country, it also endeavors to maintain its presence as the ruling government. The divergence of interests can be said to be a major contributor to the problems facing Syria. However, through an all-inclusive approach, it will be easier for the government through the support of the international community and the opposition to develop a strategy against a common enemy, ISIS.[208]

4.6 ISIS and its intentions


ISIS is considered to have originated in Iraq as an offshoot of Al-Qaeda. The group comprises fundamentalist Sunni Muslims whose initial target was the government of Iraq and the American military forces who had set camp in the country since the ousting and killing of Saddam Hussein.[209] Additional objectives of the ISIS were to eliminate Christians and Shia Muslims whom they considered as heretics. The killing of civilians of other religious denominations has been considered a major feature in ISIS attacks. In addition, ISIS is currently expanding its territories into Syria. The initial crisis in Syria was between the government, backed by the Shia leadership in Iran, and the opposition. ISIS has been able to conquer cities in Northern parts of the country and is in the process of developing a society driven by radical Sunni Islamic ideologies.[210]

The main interest of ISIS is not only to conquer and rule Syria but also to expand its territory to other parts of the world. The name of the group, ISIS, suggests that the Muslim population in the world should leave as one community governed by the Sharia law.[211] The existing crisis in Iraq and Syria has provided this group with a platform of building proto-states in Sunni majority areas. To ensure the realization of its objectives, ISIS is willing to apply any form of attacks as a way of asserting its authority. Activities, such as beheading and suicide bombing have become common attributes of areas under the control of the ISIS.[212]

The emergence of the ISIS in the Middle East has been perceived as a threat to unstable countries within the region. In addition, through the activities of the ISIS, foreign countries have continued to revise their foreign policies on arming rebel groups for the fear of arming ISIS with sophisticated weapons. In addition, the unrest situation in Syria has also continued to escalate considering tha the civilian population and the opposition have rejected the autocratic governance as introduced by the ISIS.[213] One of the major challenges facing the Islamic State in its endeavors to ensure the control of nations with majority of Muslims is that its ideology is not acceptable to all Muslim populations. The desire to eliminate by killing non- believes has been considerd as an atrocious approach to the establishment of a government. In addition, Muslim communities have continues to embrace religious tolerance as a technique aimed at enhancing social co-existence.[214]

Despite the continued opposition by different factions of the international community, ISIS has continued to propagate its radical ideologies on the poor and vulnerable populations in Iraq and Syria. The promise for biter employment opportunities, better remuneration, and the idea of service to God has been used as a technique of luring more followers into the group. This explains why majority of the members of this group are the youth.[215]

The desire to demonstrate power and spread fear among tits enemies and opposers has been perceived to be the main resign for the use of brutal attacks against their victims. ISIS has constantly used the media as a platform of revealing to the international community the levels of atrocities they can initiate against any perceived enemy.[216] Other than the youth, ISIS has also been accused of radicalizing children and recruiting them as child soldiers to participate in brutal attacks against their victims. Through this approach, ISIS endeavors to develop a culture within the Muslim world that will eliminate of convert members of opposing religious beliefs.[217]


The activities of ISIS in Iraq and Syria have been cited as atrocious and a threat to the existence of different countries within the region. Being a terrorist organization, ISIS has continued to threaten the possibility of international peace considering their expansionist ideologies that have characterized the situation within the region. Politically ISIS is considered as threat to the existence of the Syrian government. This is because of the intentions by the militant group to take over the role of the government in the allocation of essential resources, provision of educational platforms, and dispensation of justice.

Economically, the involvement of ISIS in Syria has affected the levels of investments and the availability of employment opportunities in the country. Through massive destruction of property, local and foreign investments have been redirected to other countries that possess a relatively peaceful environment. In addition, the involvement of ISIS in Syrian has also led to reduction in the population of qualified experts in the country. This is due to massive killing and migration of experts into the neighboring countries. The destruction of bilateral trade agreements can also be cited as a major economic effect in Syria and the neighboring countries.

Socially, Syria is faced by a reduction in its population due to massive killing of citizens who do not ascribe to the religious requirements of the ISIS. In addition, through this conflict, the population in Savaii has continued to decrease due to high levels of migration to the neighboring countries to escape the effects of the conflict. It is the responsibility of the government and the international platform to device strategies through which the Syrian situation can be mitigated to minimize the possibility of more destruction of life and property.

The ISIS is considerd as terror group that endeavors to ensure that all the Muslims in the world live under one Islamic state that is governed by the Sharia law. This explains their involvement in violent attacks against innocent civilians not affiliated to Sunni Islam. The process of eradicating these individual has been exacerbated by the use brutal killings and torture. The Syrian government together with the international community and the opposition has the responsibility of developing a common strategy against the ISIS. This can only be necessitated by negotiations between the warring factions of the government and the opposition and the decision to combat ISIS as a common enemy.





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[2] Jabbar, Mohammed. Islam and the West: Throwing New Light on One of the Greatest Issues Facing the World Today. 2014, p. 14.

[3] Rabinovich, Itamar. Israel and the Arab Turmoil. 2014, p. 67

[4] Chonsky & Reene, 2014,p.57

[5] Boening, Astrid B. The Arab Spring: Re-Balancing the Greater Euro-Mediterranean? 2014, p. 45.

[6] Jabar, 2014, p. 18

[7] Chomsky & Reene, 2014,p.59

[8] Boening, 2014, p. 47

[9] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 56

[10] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 56


[11] Boening, 2014, p. 47

[12] Chomsky & Reene, 2014,p.66

[13] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 67

[14] Boening, 2014, p. 49

[15] Cordesman, Anthony H., and Sam Khazai. Iraq in Crisis. 2014, p. 56

[16] Jabar, 2014, p. 25

[17] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 77

[18] Jabar, 2014, p. 19

[19] Boening, 2014, p. 49

[20] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 78

[21] NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Countering Violent Extremism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism, and Marco Lombardi. Countering Radicalisation and Violent Extremism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism. 2015.

[22] Boening, 2014, p. 67

[23] Cordesman, 2014, p. 39

[24] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 88

[25] Sackelmore, John. The World against ISIS. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2014, p. 56

[26] Jabar, 2014, p. 22

[27] NATO, 2015, P. 66

[28] Cordesman, 2014, p. 40

[29] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 78

[30] Boening, 2014, p. 50

[31] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 89

[32] Jabar, 2014, p. 56

[33] Boening, 2014, p. 53

[34] Cordesman, 2014, p. 58

[35] Boening, 2014, p. 57

[36] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 45

[37] Rabinovich, 2014, p. 67

[38] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 111

[39] Cordesman, 2014, p. 60

[40] NATO, 2015, P. 67

[41] Boening, 2014, p. 54

[42] NATO, 2015, P. 69

[43] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 34

[44] Cordesman, 2014, p. 66

[45] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 45

[46] NATO, 2015, P. 70

[47] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 55

[48] Sackelmore, 2014, p. 57

[49] Cordesman, 2014, p. 79

[50] Charles River Editors. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria: The History of ISIS/ISIL. 2014, p.20

[51] Cordesman, 2014, p. 89

[52] Casey-Maslen, Stuart. The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2013. 2014, p. 18

[53] Charles, 2014, p. 24

[54] Cordesman, 2014, p. 90

[55] Charles, 2014, p. 25

[56] Casey-Maslen, 2014, p. 45

[57] Casey-Maslen, 2014, p. 67

[58] McHugo, John. Syria From the Great War to Civil War. New York: Saqi, 2014, p.10

[59] Casey-Maslen,2014, p. 70

[60] Charles, 2014, p. 32

[61] Casey-Maslen, 2014, p. 70

[62] Charles, 2014, p. 35

[63] Sekulow, Jay.  Rise of ISIS: A Threat we can’t Ignore. Simon and Schuster: London, 2014, p. 100


[64] Sekulow, 2014. p. 100

[65] Sekulow, 2014. p. 101

[66] World Bank. Global Economic Prospects, January 2015: Having Fiscal Space and Using It. 2015, p. 20

[67] Spark, Joseph. ISIS Taking Over the Middle East: The Rise of Middle Eastern Supremacy-ISIS/ISIL. New York University Press: New York. 2014, p. 14

[68] Spark, 2014, p. 26

[69]  Spark, 2014, p. 29

[70] Islam, Maidul. Limits of Islamism. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 2015

[71] Youngs, Richard. Europe in the New Middle East: Opportunity or Exclusion? Oxford University Press: Oxford. 2014, p. 40

[72] Youngs, 2014, p. 42

[73] World Bank, 2015, p. 21

[74] Spark, 2014, p. 28

[75] Spark, 2014, p. 29

[76] Sekulow, 2014. p. 109

[77] Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack & Schmidt, Steffen. American Government and politics Today: Essentials 2015-2016. Cengage Learning: Chicago, 2015, p. 34


[78] Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack & Schmidt, 2015, p. 45

[79] Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack & Schmidt, 2015, p. 47

[80] Casey-Maslen,2014, p. 77

[81] McHugo, 2014, p. 14

[82] McHugo, 2014, p. 14

[83] Spark, Joseph. . Oxford University Press: Oxford. 2014, p. 32

[84] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 79

[85] Ayoob, Mohammed. Will the Middle East Implode? Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2014, 31

[86] Spark, 2014, p. 23

[87] Spark, 2014, p. 29

[88] Ayoob, 2014, 57

[89] Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack & Schmidt, 2015, p. 48

[90] Bardes, Barbara., Shelley, Mack & Schmidt, 2015, p. 49

[91] Sekulow, 2014. p. 110

[92] Youngs, 2014, p. 44

[93] Youngs, 2014, p. 48

[94] Spark, 2014, p. 40

[95] Lombardi, Marco. Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism among Youth to Prevent Terrorism. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2015, p. 41

[96] Lombardi, 2015, p. 44

[97] Lombardi, 2015, p. 48

[98] Spark, 2014, p. 44

[99] Lombardi, 2015, p. 49

[100] Lombardi, 2015, p. 99

[101] Lombardi, 2015, p. 100

[102] Lombardi, 2015, p. 100

[103] Lombardi, 2015, p. 101

[104] Lombardi, 2015, p. 102

[105] Sekulow, 2014. p. 109

[106] Sekulow, 2014. p. 112

[107] Sekulow, 2014. p. 119

[108] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

[109] Russell, Malcolm B. The Middle East & South Asia. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 2014, p. 34.

[110] Russell, 2014. p. 40

[111] Lombardi, 2015, p. 107

[112] Lombardi, 2015, p. 109


[113] Spark, 2014, p. 28

[114] Erlich, Reese. Inside Syria: The Backstory of Their Civil War and What the World Can Expect. Prometheus Books; London. 2014, p. 45

[115] Erlich, 2014, p.47

[116] Erlich, 2014, p.58

[117] Erlich, 2014, p.60

[118] Ayoob, 2014, 59

[119] Best, Antomy. Hanhimaki, Jussi., Maiolo, Joseph. International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 2014

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[121] Ayoob, 2014, 62

[122] Best et al, 2014, p. 123

[123] Lombardi, 2015, p. 104

[124] Young, William, David Stebbins, Bryan A. Frederick, and Omar Al-Shahery. Spillover from the Conflict in Syria: An Assessment of the Factors That Aid and Impede the Spread of Violence. New York University Press: New York. 2014, p. 50

[125] Lombardi, 2015, p. 104

[126] Young, William, David Stebbins, Bryan A. Frederick, and Omar Al-Shahery, p. 52

[127] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

[128] Russell, 2014, p. 45

[129] Russell, 2014, p. 48

[130] Russell, 2014, p. 49


[131] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

[132] Lombardi, 2015, p. 107

[133] Spark, 2014, p. 88

[134] Spark, 2014, p. 89

[135] Spark, 2014, p. 89

[136] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

[137] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

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[139] Ayoob, 2014, 64

[140] Spark, 2014, p. 55

[141] Lombardi, 2015, p. 106

[142] Sackelmore, John. The World against ISIS. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2014, p. 56

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[144] Devarajan, 2014, p. 45

[145] Lombardi, 2015, p. 100

[146] Sekulow, 2014. p. 14

[147] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 20

[148] Sekulow, 2014. p. 19

[149] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 24

[150] Sekulow, 2014. p. 25

[151] Spark, 2014, p. 10

[152] Sekulow, 2014. p. 29

[153] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 27

[154] Spark, 2014, p. 14

[155] Lombardi, 2015, p. 10

[156] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 79

[157] Spark, 2014, p. 23

[158] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 80

[159] Lombardi, 2015, p. 99

[160] Spark, 2014, p. 27

[161] Spark, 2014, p. 30

[162] Youngs, 2014, p. 57

[163] Youngs, 2014, p. 62

[164] Lombardi, 2015, p. 79

[165] Spark, 2014, p. 37

[166] Charles, 2014, p. 35

[167] Spark, 2014, p. 39

[168] Sekulow, 2014. p. 102

[169] Sekulow, 2014. p. 105

[170] Sekulow, 2014. p. 106

[171] Russell, 2014. p. 44

[172] Russell, 2014. p. 46

[173] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 79

[174] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 81

[175] Casey-Maslen, 2014, 89

[176] Erlich, 2014, p. 56

[177] Erlich, 2014, p. 56

[178] Erlich, 2014, p. 58

[179] Ayoob, 2014,  50

[180] Best et al, 2014, p. 119

[181] Lombardi, 2015, p. 87

[182] Ayoob, 2014,  53

[183] Best et al, 2014, p. 120

[184] Lombardi, 2015, p. 100

[185] Best et al, 2014, p. 125

[186] Best et al, 2014, p. 124

[187] Best et al, 2014, p. 101

[188] Best et al, 2014, p. 106

[189] Russell, 2014. p. 79

[190] Russell, 2014. p. 49

[191] Russell, 2014. p. 55

[192] Lombardi, 2015, p. 10

[193] Lombardi, 2015, p. 15

[194] Lombardi, 2015, p. 44

[195] Ayoob, 2014,  34

[196] Ayoob, 2014,  47

[197] Lombardi, 2015, p. 37

[198] Lombardi, 2015, p. 38

[199] Ayoob, 2014,  47

[200] Ayoob, 2014,  40

[201] Ayoob, 2014,  55

[202] Best et al, 2014, p. 91

[203] Best et al, 2014, p. 12

[204] Best et al, 2014, p. 102

[205] Best et al, 2014, p. 44

[206] Lombardi, 2015, p. 19

[207] Lombardi, 2015, p. 22

[208] Lombardi, 2015, p. 15

[209] Best et al, 2014, p. 88

[210] Erlich, 2014, p. 49

[211] Erlich, 2014, p. 49

[212] Russell, 2014. p. 30

[213] Lombardi, 2015, p. 21

[214] Ayoob, 2014, p. 55


[215] Lombardi, 2015, p. 23

[216] Lombardi, 2015, p. 67

[217] Russell, 2014. p. 120