Sample Paper on Human Factors Threats Culture Liability

Human Factors, Threats, Culture, Liability

The Bank of America is a financial institution that is committed fully to people living and working around it. The bank offers financial related assistance and services, which includes loans, financial advice, money transactions, and employment opportunities. The Bank of America ensures that its esteemed customers receive the best quality services, and all their needs are met in time.

According to Martin Libicki, cyber attack can be termed as the act or process of infringing and tampering with the components in the real ream in order to gain unauthorized entry or access to crucial communication and information systems (Allhoff, Evans & Henschke, 2013). From the article in the Soft pedianews, the Bank of America is sued by a Public hospital located in Chelan County for transacting money to a party that took the identity of the hospital. Three hundred and seventy five thousand U.S dollars were transferred to an unknown account that had disguised itself as the client hospital. Hackers hacked the account system of the hospital and infiltrated the payroll systems, hence gaining authorization and access to facilitate money transfer.

The suspects who carried out the attack and their counterparts who carry out the same expeditions have the characteristics of having a great knowhow in the field of computers and the aspect of networking.  The attackers’ intensions are to weaken the normal operations of the targeted computer system without making alert or attention to the parties involved in the networking system. They manipulate the advanced technology to fake identity or use other people’s identity without their knowledge. This helps them to facilitate an organized crime that they want to carry out at the victims’ expense (Owens, Dam, Lin, & National Research Council (U.S.) 2009). The attackers have an interest in law breaking and sourcing for greater rewards like huge amounts of money. To them, they feel it is an achievement since they will make a name even though in an undercover means. They are curious to understand more about the venture they want to partake; they do research and apply the vast knowledge to pursue through highly secure sites. Their professionalism makes them to utilize their business without raising suspicion even days after the offence has been carried out.

The business culture is the situation where organizational goals and objectives are cooperated with individual and other parties’ interests. There are agreed upon terms and conditions that a particular business conforms to. These particular interests are the ones that an organization follows in its daily activities, and it cannot go against them since all the stakeholders have agreed upon them (Sinha 2008). The reasons that the Bank of America gave to defend itself was that it had to allow the transactions since the owner of the account requested for such transaction. Culture, norms, terms, and conditions have been laid down in the Uniform Commercial Code stating that ‘a bank can process payment request received in the name of the customer, if the validation process respected the security procedures imposed by the bank’.

With such knowledge in the standards that are used in the banking system, the attackers have a very clear platform to manipulate such a code that relates between the banks and the clients. Since hackers have magnificent skills, they impersonate the clients, hack into their systems, and transact on behave of the real clients.

The Secret Service sustains Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs), which the focal point is on making out and establishing international cyber attackers who are linked to bank fraud, data violation, and other computer related crimes. The Secret Service’s Cyber Intelligence Section has unswervingly contributed to seize of wanted cyber criminals around the globe (United States. 2010).

Credit Card Interest Reduction Schemes, Investment Schemes, Lottery Schemes and Counterfeit-Check Schemes are some of the major checkpoints that have been used to curb cyber crime fraud. Since the Bank of America understands the risks that they face and the potential risks facing their system they are in a better position to curb and prevent risks. There should be a change of culture that will help in the preventive security measures, constant a consultation with top security firms is very essential. It will help to manage all the emerging theft techniques and in the long run abort all the attackers’ ways they may use to fraud money.

The challenge of implementation comes in as a result of several factors like advanced technology, laws and regulations governing the company, the constitution of different countries, and various emerging money transfer modes. In addition, the process of making  new rules and regulations means adjusting the whole legal framework of the organization; in order to avoid an occurrence of such an incidence in the near future or to avoid other loopholes that may occur from the change of the laws. Some states or countries do not conform to the changes that lead to curbing cyber security hence making the process of fighting cyber crime a challenge. This gives the attackers a good manipulation field to run and implement their sharp and intelligent skills, as they fulfill their desire for adventure.



Allhoff, F., Evans, G., & Henschke, A. (2013). Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War Theory in the 21st Century. Retrieved from

Financial Regulator Warns New York Banks of Armageddon-Type Cyber attack

Jascu I. (2015). Bank of America Sued over Million Dollar Cyber-Attack at Public Hospital. Retrieved from

Owens, W. A., Dam, K. W., Lin, H., & National Research Council (U.S.). (2009). Technology, policy, law, and ethics regarding U.S. acquisition and use of cyber attack capabilities. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Sinha, J. B. P. (2008). Culture and organizational behaviour. Los Angeles: SAGE.

United States. (2010). The President’s fiscal year 2011 budget request for the Department of Homeland Security: Hearing before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, second session, February 25, 2010. Washington: U.S. G.P.O

Describe regulatory requirements and describe possible liability issues that may be related to these cyberattacks. How should cyber policy controls be adjusted for Bank Of America to reduce vulnerabilities and prevent disruption or theft due to possible future attacks?