Sample Paper on Human Rights and Freedoms

Human Rights and Freedoms: Environmental Rights


The United Nations Charter principles recognize that inherent dignity provide equal and inalienable rights to all members belonging to the human family. Thus, it is a foundation that ensures the human family enjoys freedom, peace, and justice across the global platform. It is however vital to note that these principles, rights, and values are derived from humanity and dignity. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ideal in providing free social, cultural, civil, political, and economic rights seeks to ensure humans are dignified without living in fear. As a result, the Charter of the United Nations obliges all member states to promote and enhance respectable values across the universe while observing and upholding human rights and freedoms. Ultimately, it ensures human beings in a community are individually tasked with the responsibility of observing, promoting, and recognizing the rights and freedoms contained in the covenant. These rights include social, economic, cultural, political, and environmental. It is however evident that environmental rights are globally violated due to the massive increase in pollution levels, global warming gases, and poverty (Svitlana, 2007).

Statement Purpose

This research seeks to affirm that, the human family has been struggling to sustain human rights and freedoms due to restrictions in upholding and respecting environmental rights. Global communities across worldwide nations are facing adverse environmental challenges. These challenges include lack of sufficient resources such as food and clean water, inequality in distribution of wealth, high levels of pollution, and consequently poverty. This is because human families are maximally respecting and preserving wider human rights allied to social, economic, political, and cultural aspects while ignoring and violating environmental rights and freedoms. More so, some global national leaders are formulating policies aimed at limiting, discriminating or prejudicing communities from enjoying human rights and freedoms. These limitations are adversely affecting efforts to promote environmental laws. This research will therefore explore how global communities are either violating or assuming environmental rights. It will focus on principles discussed under the Charter of the United Nations in attempt to promote and sustain human rights and freedoms.

Environmental Laws

According to Alexandre Kiss, environmental laws are derived from common interests among human beings. As a result, global communities ought to recognize that human rights and freedoms are incomplete without implementation of environmental laws. This is because they are fundamental in promoting equality and adequacy in order for human kind to lead quality lives across safe and healthy environmental conditions promoting human dignity. More so, environmental laws are responsible in protecting and upholding environmental rights and freedoms improving the present and future living conditions sustaining human life (Alexandre, 2010).

Conversely, United Nations is keen in ensuring global communities achieve environmental growth, development and preservation. United Nations has held various conferences aimed at reaffirming environmental rights and freedoms build and preserve human kind. Thus, it teaches global communities to recognize the integral and interdependent nature of mother earth in providing human beings with a home. However, people fail to sustain environmental development due to self-reason aimed at achieving individualized rather than global healthy and productive harmonious natures (Svitlana, 2007).


United Nations International Covenant

Article 1

This article allows people to have the rights of self-determination in order to feel free in establishing their political, social, economic, and cultural developments without restrictions. It also allows human beings to dispose their natural wealth and resources without discrimination or prejudice. They should not be obliged to observe international economic cooperation principles tasked in providing mutual benefits in accordance to the international laws. This is an assurance they are neither deprived nor denied means of subsistence. Lastly, the article is responsible in promoting rights of self-determination, respect, and conformity. This is achieved through the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories of the Charter of the United Nations (UN, 1976).

Article 2

This article asserts that, all State parties ought to undertake procedures to assist and cooperate in ensuring technical and economic aspects are evaluated in ensuring maximum resources are provided to achieve progressive legislative measures. Thus, the State Parties should guarantee tights enunciated are exercised without prejudice and discrimination based on color, race, sex, religion, politics, language, or other factors attributing to diversity. Consequently, national and social origins should not deny or discriminate an individual from enjoying the rights to birth, property, and other statuses. Lastly, human rights among developing countries with national economy ought to determine the extent they can guarantee economic rights and statuses to non-nationals based on the present covenant (UN, 1976).

Environmental Rights versus Social-Economic Dimensions

Humanity, dignity, and respect are key concepts applied to define diversity among global human families. They promote and sustain diversity through continuous ecosystems depending on the well-being of nature, earth, or environments. Thus, environmental rights and freedoms ought to be integrated with socioeconomic aspects seeking to achieve growth and development in order to meet and fulfill basic needs among global human families. Thus, human families can neither lead nor enjoy lives while residing in poverty as living conditions are bound to deteriorate due to lack of protection, management, and preservation for a prosperous future (Weston & Bollier, 2011).

Through the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 44/228 of 22, nations were encouraged to adopt and accept the need to balance integrated approaches enhancing environmental growth and development. United Nations was preparing global nations in avoiding to face future challenges due to lack of environmental conservation and preservation. Thus, it aimed at acquiring social, economic, and political commitments from global human families in cooperating to achieve environmental development. Governments were awarded with the responsibility of formulating and implementing policies, strategies, processes, and plans to achieve environmental development and preservation. International, national, regional, and sub-regional organizations on the other hand were tasked in supporting implementation of policies to encourage environmental rights and freedoms are promoted, respected, and enhanced.

These measures are promoted by United Nations mainly to combat social, economic, cultural, and political poverty. The organization defines any form of poverty as a complex multidimensional issues originating from national and international domains. As a result, it lacks a uniformed solution to address and resolve it on global platforms. It is therefore advisable for specific programs among countries to formulate and implement measures tackling poverty. Efforts should support various processes, programs, policies and solutions aimed at promoting environmental rights and freedoms in order to tackle poverty. This is because environmental poverty leads to hunger, inequality especially in distribution of wealth and resources, discrimination, prejudice, diseases, poor living conditions, and lack of responsibilities (UNDP, 2002).

Consequently, global human families reside in low living standards neither promoting nor enhancing dignity and respect. Thus, the various United Nations Articles formulated and implemented in attempts to promote human rights and freedoms should be respected and sustained. This is because they have the power to ensure human resources and environmental policies protect, preserve, and sustain human rights and freedoms across socio, economic, cultural, and political aspects. For example, the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development of the 2002 World Summit was committed in assuming collective responsibility in advancing and strengthening mutual and interdependent pillars reinforcing sustainable growth and development. This is because it aimed at achieving sustainable economic, social, and environmental growth and development on local, regional, national, and global levels (WSSD, 2002). Thus, promoting environmental rights and freedoms further advances and enhances civil and liberty rights among national and non-national human families globally (Svitlana, 2007).

Theoretical Framework

The interdisciplinary world of sustainable growth and development can be described theoretically using conceptual data and labels to form the relationship between human and environmental rights. Utopianism is a theoretical concept envisaging human habitats. It seeks to assert that, perfect societies ought to be described as communities allowing justice to prevail among people perfectly contented to reside and flourish in harmony. This is because Mother Nature allows their lives to move smoothly without shortages, abuses, and violation of rights and freedoms. It is however impractical to utilize this concept in defining current human family societies globally to insufficient environmental utopias denying human kind the right to lead dignified, respectable and comfortable lives due to pollution, poverty, shortages, and unsustainable developments (Yosef, 2008).

These issues adversely affect human kind from living in high quality and stable ecosystems. For example, human kind has to deal with global warming and pollution. More so, populations sizes are increasing coupled with drastic increases in energy prices impeding production of standardized, repairable, and durable goods. Self-regulations, diversification, and varieties are aspects promoting balance and harmonization of natural and artificial environments. Coupled with civil liberties and democratic participatory, ecological societies ought to manage, monitor, protect, preserve and conserve environments. This is however neither attempted nor achieved, as hierarchical ecological human societies do not inspire to innovate or imagine powerful utopian ecosystems. More so, they lack positive attitudes and motivations to ensure environments are harmonized to achieve sustainable development. This further leads to diminishing human rights as environmental rights and freedoms are either violated or denied by selfish and materialistic ecological societies (Yosef, 2008).

The concept of ethical paradox is also allied in promotion of human rights. It regards sustainable development as a process characterized with environmental modifications. States ought to deeply intervene in order to formulate and implement measures and policies aimed at preserving environmental resources. This can guarantee human kind or ecological societies with time avoid altering natural resources hence, achieving and sustaining development on social, economic or capital, political, and cultural aspects (Yosef, 2008).

Ultimately, ecological societies ought to adopt ethical values in analyzing their human needs. This will ensure human families neither undermine nor violate environmental resources as the environmental logo with an economic development power mitigates and moderates sustainable growth and development. Consequently, global human families can promote and enhance human rights aimed at promoting other freedoms capable of resolving ecological crises that can adversely affect human kind. As a result, the concept of ethical paradox should be adopted globally to encourage ecological societies to limit, manage, control and monitor capitalism and ecology growth. This will promote human survival and well-being elevating global ethics ensuring human families enjoy freedoms and rights organizing and sustaining their developments (Yosef, 2008).

The concept of equity is mainly based on social aspects and dimensions. Unjust societies do not promote or achieve economic and environmental justice. Thus, this concept strives to encourage ecological societies in encompassing environmental, economic, and social justices. This includes promoting and enhancing human rights and freedoms, democracy, empowerment, qualities of lives, equality especially in distribution of resources, and public participation. World environmental despoliation and degradation are therefore linked to equality of rights and freedoms, social justice, and quality of life in a wide sense. As a result, human families should identify measures to sustain social needs, welfare, equity, and economic opportunities. However, they should also determine environmental limits in order to ensure ecosystems are supported, balanced, and harmonized. Consequently, environmentalists and governments can develop effective and efficient social, economic, and environmental objectives emphasizing and balancing on human rights and freedoms (Yosef, 2008).


Human rights and freedoms promote dignity, equality, respect, and peace across global human families. They ensure human kind strive in achieving balanced economic, social, cultural, and political developments. However, it is vital noting environmental developments influence human rights and developments. This explains why governmental and non-governmental organizations including United Nations formulate and implement environmental laws, rights, and freedoms. For example, the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories of the Charter of the United Nations strives to promote rights allied to self-determination, respect, and conformity. Consequently, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights strives to provide global communities with free social, cultural, civil, political, and economic rights ensuring humans are dignified without living in fear. Thus, basic, civil, social, political, and fundamental human rights enhance and promote human rights and freedoms in the general sense. Ecological communities should therefore respect and uphold environmental rights and freedoms. For example, the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 44/228 of 22, should be integrated to enhance environmental growth and development. Human families should therefore avoid engaging in activities either harming or deteriorating environmental resources. This will reduce pollution, global warming, hunger, and poverty among other challenges impeding human rights and freedoms. Thus, the Charter of the United Nations seeking to promote and sustain human rights should be valued, protected, and preserved.



Alexandre, K. (2010). International Human Rights Law and Environmental Problems: An Introductory note on Human Right to Environment. Retrieved on 26th March 2015 from:

Svitlana, K. (2007). The Aarhus Convention and Innovations in Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy.

United Nations (UN). (1976). Multilateral: United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved on 26th March 2015 from:

United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2002). Human Development Report 2002: Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weston, B. H., & Bollier, D. (2011). Regenerating the Human Rights to a Clean and Healthy Environment in the Commons Renaissance. Ecological Survival Report.

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). (2002). Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Johannesburg, South Africa.

Yosef, J. (2008). A New Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development. Environmental Development and Sustainability Journal, 10(1), 179-19