Sample paper on Infant and Toddler Disorders Scholarly Article Review

Infant and Toddler Disorders Scholarly Article Review

  • Discussion of the focus of the research

The research was focused on the importance of success realized after global preventive efforts of Tay-Sachs disease, which has been common among Jewish people. According to Zelnika et al. (2011), the disease commonly affects offspring from consanguineous parents. It is a recessive child and toddler disorder, which lead to relentless deterioration of child’s mental and physical abilities (Zelnika et al. 2000). Therefore, realization of prevention efforts to this disorder would lead to reduced death cases that result from buildup of ganglioside in the nervous system due to lack of hexosaminadase enzyme in a child’s body.

  • Description of the hypothesis of the study

Hypothetically, the study was meant to find out whether or not prevalence of STD carriers in psychiatric patients is higher than the prevalence patients in general population and that their clinical profile differs significantly from profile of the non-carrier patients.

  • Description of how the study was conducted including the population that was studied, the methodology used (i.e. naturalistic observation, experiment, case study, survey, etc). How the data was collected and analyzed.

The study was conducted in Northern Israel between 1995 and 1996. Two psychiatric hospitals were selected from which hospitalized psychiatric patients were studied. According to their generic backgrounds and psychiatric symptoms, the study considered these patients because they had been categorized as highly risked in LOTSD.  Therefore, the study developed four criteria for categorization of the risked individuals. These include patients who had previously been diagnosed with psychiatric disorders in relation to LOTSD, patients who showed evidenced relationship of the disorder with Ashkenazi ancestry through several mutations besides the prevalence of the disorder for adult patients. In this study Excluded criteria included patients with psychiatric disorder who had never been associated with LOTSD, presence of other diseases which have similar symptoms to psychiatric disorders.

Methodologically, the patients underwent clinical evaluation in which they were diagnosed as per DSM-IV procedures. Their neurological and psychiatric characteristics, Biochemical analyses and DNA analyses were examined and recorded before statistical analysis was carried out on the results. The tool used for measurement or scoring patient’s severity indices is the Clinical Global Impression Scale. In addition, patients’ cognitive level was evaluated by use of questionnaire, which was structured to obtain patients’ responses on orientation, ability to carry out basic arithmetic exercises, ability to read and memorize their passed incidences. An alternative or standby measuring device for incorrectly answered questions or suspected cognitive impairment was Mini-Mental State Examination. This was meant to ensure that responses obtained were in line with the objective of the study. According to the study design, patients who had less than twenty-five points were considered to suffer from cognitive impairment. Finally, critical examinations of patients for presence of TSD in their respective family members, was carried out.

  • Description of the results of the study your review/discussion of the article will include 

Out of the 500 patients investigated, 17.6 percent of them had family history related to the metal disorder. Three patients had family history for TSD carrier state although no case of TSD in families was recorded. Hex-A analysis (or biochemical analysis) resulted to 481 patients who exhibited normalcy in Hex-A enzymes. However, 19 results (from 19 patients) were partially positive for enzymatic activities in relation to TSD carrier state. From DNA analyses (on 17 patients) only 8 of them tested positive for +1277 TATC mutations while the other two patients tested for G ® CIVS 12 + 1 and Gly269 ® Ser mutation . The remaining seven patients showed no signs of mutations. From all DNA analyses, only one mutation showed psychiatric correlation (between a father and a daughter).

  • A discussion of the way the research was conducted and potential impact on results (e.g. problems with the study methodology that might have affected its validity and/or generalizability).

The research was conducted in only two selected areas within Northern Israel.  Reason for choice of this study zone was not provided. This causes some doubt on representativeness of the study samples in relation to the problem being addressed. This is evidenced by the analyses results, which show insignificant outcomes. However, given that there were some positive results from the analyses; chances is that situation (on children disorders) can become more severe if left for a long time without being controlled.

  • A description of three ideas inspired in you by the article.

I was inspired by the detailed stepwise methodological approach, high degree of consultation as evidenced by the lengthy list of acknowledgements besides the mode used for data analyses and presentation (that is, as per the respective variables-gender)

  • A description of the use, impact, or potential the research might have

Although insignificant results were reported from this research, the work provided a leeway for further studies on the effects of genealogy on child and toddler mental disorders. A more comprehensive and representative study is likely to expose stunning revelation in favor of the hypothetical view held by Ainsworth.
















  1. Zelnika V. Khazanovb A. Sheinkmanc A.M. Karpatid L. Pelegd (2000). Clinical Manifestations of Psychiatric Patients Who Are Carriers of Tay – Sachs disease. Retrieved from