Sample Paper on Largest contributing factor toward global warming

What is the single largest contributing factor toward global warming and what policy should be adapted to stop it?

Introduction

This question is significant because global warming is a contemporary issue affecting the whole world and that needs to be resolved urgently to stop the severe effects experienced every other day on the planet. Global warming is largely contributed by the emission of carbon dioxide gasses that are trapped in the atmosphere, causing a blanket layer that eventually traps heat and causes considerably warm temperatures on the planet (Allen, Seaman, and  DeLascio par 1). Due to the increased demands of energy to meet the industry needs, fossil fuel is burnt from materials such as gas, coal, and oil to meet the energy needs. In addition, the increasing population of humans on earth has increased the need for land, which is used for residential purposes, pastures, and plantations. Therefore, to meet these needs, large tracks of forestlands are burnt to create space and these processes result in massive carbon gas emissions. When all these gasses are released, they accumulate in the atmosphere and the atmosphere becomes overloaded. Other gasses contribute to global warmings, such as methane and nitrous oxide, which are emitted through certain agricultural practices and methods of waste management (Brown 27).

The most dangerous effects of releasing carbon dioxide gasses are its nature of surviving in the atmosphere for a very long time, causing decades of trapped heat effect on the planet. Therefore, it is important to establish ways of dealing with global warming problems, because the trapped carbon dioxide causes severe, irreversible effects, which are very harmful to human and animal life (Lewandowski et al. 320). However, the global economy largely depends on fossil fuels for energy, which makes carbon dioxide emissions consistent, increasing the thickness of the blanket already in the atmosphere. The effects, therefore, continue to worsen and threaten climate for the future generations on earth. By way of that, it is crucial that workable strategies and policies are put in place to ensure reduced carbon dioxide emissions and to curb the current problem of global warming (Allen, Seaman, and  DeLascio par 3).

Evidence from scientific research designates that if the global temperatures continue to rise to a measure above 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit above the pre-industrial levels, human life and well-being, as well as natural systems, will be at risk. Policies that urge nations to reduce carbon gasses, therefore, need to be put in place, especially in the most notorious nations like the USA. Regional actions put in place may add up to global solutions to the desired outcomes and achieve any hope of staying below 2 degrees Celsius. Because emission of these gasses originates from a local level, regional policies and actions should be put in place from a community level base to slow the rate at which the globe is warming and reduce the pace and severity of the effects (Brown 30). Therefore, carbon dioxide emission is the single contributing factor to global warming and the policies to be adopted should be those that slow the rate of warming, pace, and severity of the changes and effects. (Thesis)

According to Roy Spencer (45), the insistence of global warming is not settled despite media and politics insisting on its settlement. In his research, Roy stated that the future projections of global warming had many reasons to be distrusted because of the ignorance used to make the protection. The study concludes that blaming human beings for the effects of ozone depletion leading to global warming is a bare ignorance of the real facts about the natural differentiation of the climate system (Spencer 46).

According to Roy Spencer (48), century-scale natural climate unpredictability does not exist because there is no evidence of the causal factors of decadal. The energy needs of the world are too huge such that humans cannot evade generating energy, which makes it almost impossible for humanity to do away with innovative energy technologies. Therefore, since only the developed countries can afford to invest in the new technology to generate energy from cleaner and safer sources, other countries will continue using fossil fuel combustion for their energy needs. Therefore, there is no need to punish the use of fossil fuels by those countries and their impacts on the economy and global warming in general. These factors, therefore, continue to delay the attainment of cost-effective cleaner sources of energy such as wind (Spencer 50).

The research was carried out to determine the effect of road emissions on the quality of the air in the Lisbon region on atmospheric circulation conditions and pollution patterns under summer meteorological states. Lisbon region was chosen because it represented a busy industrialized area where population density is high and advanced economic development. The air in the region was subject to high pollution from the carbon dioxide emitted from the high traffic in the city (Borrego 4684). From the research finding, it was found that strategies to subsidize air pollution urgently needed to be put into place to minimize the effects of global warming. Unlike in the past, where huge air pollutants were emitted from industries and domestic heating, fossil fuel combustion from traffic in busy cities has been known to omit considerably huge amounts of pollution.

Results from the research done in Lisbon, Portugal, concluded that the traffic emission increases the pollution of air in over twenty times of the exposure to the poisonous gas concentration. This caused a duplication of the ozone layer beyond the directive warning, with night and early morning, causing the increased ozone depletion (Borrego 4688).

The evidence provided by the results of the study in Lisbon showed that the traffic produced and emitted poisonous and dangerous gasses into the air. These dangerous gasses threatened the air quality in the city and contributed to massive depletion of the ozone layer, most especially in the early morning and during the night. These are the times when the traffic in Lisbon is heavy and therefore leading to massive emissions of harmful gasses. The study concluded that it was important to enact urgent policies and strategies and implement them to help conserve the environment and slow the pace at which global warming is happening (Borrego 4690).

Research by Jacobson (1985) on global warming, aimed at determining the policies and strategies that can be implemented to control and reduce the rate of global warming. According to Jacobson, if the policies involved the control of fossil fuels, organic matter, and emission of carbon dioxide, then reduced amounts of harmful gasses threatening the ozone layer could be lessened. To slow the rate of global warming, workable policies such as regulating all gasses contributing to the negative effects on the climate such as black carbon and methane could be the most effective method of slowing the effects of ozone depletion (Jacobson 1989).

According to the research, eliminating the emission of methane, fossil fuels, organic matter, and black carbon, would take a period of twenty-five to a hundred years. This would eliminate over twenty to forty-five erect of net global warming, which would be considerable progress in the fight against pollution and implementation of the policies in just a period of three to five years (Jacobson 1992). This effect would also be achieved by eliminating the emission of carbon dioxide alone in a period of between fifty to two hundred years. This process should include the elimination of carbon dioxide and other harmful gas cars using diesel. These cars using diesel contribute over 0.05 g/km, standards that may warm the climate per the distance driven in the next a hundred years, more than other cars consuming gasoline for energy (Jacobson 2006).

This study shows that the carbon and tax laws favoring the use of diesel over other sources of energy for cars contribute so much in accelerating global warming. Thus, adopting policies that toughen cars’ particulate emission standards would contribute to a factor of eight of reduced pollution and would considerably reduce the period diesel vehicles warm the globe by thirteen to fifty-four years. Even though controlling emissions of carbon dioxide gasses and methane could slow the process of global warming, total control of greenhouse gasses can stop global warming completely (Jacobson 2010). Therefore, policies enacted to slow the rate of global warming should really focus on controlling the gasses emitted from the greenhouses. This move not only helps in controlling the emission of harmful gasses that deplete the ozone layer and cause global warming but also improves general human health.

Policies

The effects of gas emission in the atmosphere such as global warming and other health-associated problems have to led to strategies to reduce the effect and rates of emission by many countries. According to the authors of this article, Thailand has been just but one of the countries interested in learning more about developing sources of renewable energies to reduce air pollution. Currently, Thailand generates electricity from many sources, including many renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and hydroelectric. In 2012, Thailand generated energy mainly from natural gasses amounting to 63.8% of all electricity generated, and from coal/ignite, which produces 27.7% (Chingulpitak 312). However, the decision to cut on the emission and study more into developing sources of renewable energy derived from fuel price spikes and the effects of climate changes.

Many countries have invested in renewable gasses such as wind to cut on amounts of air pollution, which eventually reduces the effects of global warming. China has most of its electric energy from wind energy and gets more energy from the wind than any other country on earth. Thailand has developed and encouraged the use of renewable energy and in 2012, they were able to generate about 111.7MW. Their goal is to increase this amount of energy generated by renewable energy to 1800MW by 2021 (Chingulpitak 314). Thailand’s government has plans of generating most of its electricity from wind energy and replace other fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil, to reduce the effects of global warming in the world (Chingulpitak 315).

The need for energy to carry out daily life needs such as transport, telecommunication, and manufacturing has placed a heavy burden on countries to generate enough electricity. The need to use easily available energies such as fossil fuels and forgo renewable energies such as wind has contributed to air pollution. The countries that have already put in place policies and strategies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are acting as role models for the other countries to emulate. These policies reduce the amount of air pollution and the pace at which climatic changes are experienced. This is a productive stand because it is safe and cheap to use some of the renewable energy such as wind. Generating quality, energy with reasonable prices and in sufficient quantities is vital to any country as it is to the whole world (Chingulpitak 316). Therefore, in attempts of supporting energy security and environmental conservation, several countries have supported the idea of turning away from fossil fuel energy usage, and instead, generating energy from renewable sources. The reason why Thailand opted to use wind turbines was that it was cost-effective, clean, and environmentally friendly (Chingulpitak 318).

The increased emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses responsible for global warming have risen because of the industrialized process. This has made many countries yearn for more energy to meet the demands of energy in and out of the countries. The effects of the emitted gasses continuously deplete the ozone layer, causing global warming and other injurious impacts on human life on earth (Singh par 1).

According to this study, the best approach to minimize the effects of global warming is to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide and other harmful gasses. The policy suggested by this study is that the already emitted carbon dioxide got captured and stored to prevent it from finding its way to the atmosphere (Singh par 3).

The authors of “Fuel cells, an alternative to standard sources of energy,” focus on three Es that should be in the policy to curb the problem of global warming for any country that needs to participate. Energy security, Environmental protection, and Economic growth are the key concepts that should be incorporated in the policies to curb global warming (Boudghene and Traversa 295). According to the author, the fuel cell concept should be used to generate energy because it has no negative effects on global warming. This is because energy is generated by electrochemically combining the fuel with an oxidant to generate electricity. This method is effective because it is clean and does not emit gasses harmful to the environment. The advantage of using the fuel cell technique is its ability to convert chemical energy straight to electrical energy without omitting dangerous gasses to pollute the environment. This strategy is effective because air and noise pollution are suppressed and more energy is generated than it would from the same amount of sources by any other method (Boudghene and Traversa 297). The only residue or emission from this mode of generating energy is water vapor, making it the most effective in generating clean and quality energy (Boudghene and Traversa 302).

Michael Grunwald (29), blames ignorance on the massive destruction by humankind, which has cost the world’s utmost ecological jewel. Humankind destroys vegetation cover by using bulldozers to clear away forestlands for pasture and cultivation. In the south of the Amazon, people light fire to clear the fields and reports continue to air about deforestation increase on earth (Grunwald 30). A few years ago in 1990, Amazon held an incomparable storehouse for biodiversity, but recently the case is changing as huge tracks of land have been cleared for pastures and ranches and are now income-generating storehouses. The carbon dioxide released on the lands around Amazon has all gone up to the atmosphere and added up to the contributing factors of global warming.

Most of the carbon dioxide emission from Brazil, which currently ranks fourth worldwide in carbon dioxide emissions, is generated from the massive deforestation in the country. The desire of humans to make money has made them lose control of their senses over the future effects of their actions of tearing the forests down. There is too much scramble for tracks of land to make up for the rising demands of farm-grown fuel. However, in the process of reaching that goal, people are emitting too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere trying to prepare their new pieces of land. The increased demand for a drastic expansion of agriculture in Brazil has continued to invade the Amazon at an arming rate, which is a dangerous sign of the climatic conditions of tomorrow (Grunwald 31).

The new policies, however, propelled by the increased anxiety of human destruction involve the generation of clean energy from biofuel to cut on fuel costs and slow the climatic changes. The movement to achieve this has been a trendy way for corporations and politicians to show their support for the green-tech revolution of generating clean energy in an attempt of slowing the global warming rate. For instance, US increased its production of biofuel and quintupled ethyl alcohol production, which is made from plant matter. Other continents such as Europe and countries such as Brazil have mandated and subsidized the use of biofuel to generate energy (Grunwald 32).

In attempts to research more bout fossil fuel effects of global warming, Antonio and Luca examined to study findings to compare the results by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper’s study. Even though the results from the two studies showed similar findings in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there were substantial variations in the effects of the gasses on the future effects of global warming (Zecca and Luca 1). Nel and Cooper’s findings probe to underestimate the effects of carbon dioxide on global warming by indicating that even if all the fossil fuels were burnt, they would only contribute to just one degree  Celsius above the currently two thousand level (Zecca and Luca 3).

Conclusion

Carbon dioxide emission is the single largest contributor to global warming and the increasing need for energy continuously increases the effects. Studies have shown that the long-term effect will continue to be felt centuries coming unless measures to curb the problem (Zecca and Luca 3). Policies should be enacted to reduce the amount of air pollution contributing to global warming. Several countries such as China have developed strategies of generating electricity from renewable energy. These contributions by such countries continue to lessen the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, which is significant in reducing the effects of global warming.

Works cited

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Borrego, C., et al. “Impact of road traffic emissions on air quality of the Lisbon region.” Atmospheric Environment 34.27 (2000): 4683-4690.

Boudghene Stambouli, A., and E. Traversa. “Fuel cells, an alternative to standard sources of energy.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6.3 (2002): 295-304.

Brown, Stephen P. A. “Global Warming Policy: Some Economic Implications.” Economic Review – Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (1998): 26-35. ProQuest. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

Chingulpitak, Sakkarin, and Somchai Wongwises. “Critical review of the current status of wind energy in Thailand.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014): 312-318.

Grunwald, Michael. “The clean energy scam.” Time 171.15 (2008): 28-32.

Jacobson, Mark Z. “Control of fossil‐fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 107.D19 (2002): ACH-16.

Lewandowski, Gary, Natalie Ciarocco, and Emily Gately. “The Effect Of Embodied Temperature On Perceptions Of Global Warming.” Current Psychology 31.3 (2012): 318-324. Business Source Complete. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

Singh, Udayan. “Carbon capture and storage: an effective way to mitigate global warming.” Current Science (00113891) 105.7 (2013).

Spencer, Roy W. “How Serious is the Global Warming Threat?.” Society 44.5 (2007): 45-50.

Zecca, Antonio, and Luca Chiari. “Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming.” Energy Policy 38.1 (2010): 1-3.