Sample Paper on Phrases and Key words-Answers

Phrases and Key words-Answers

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) is an innovation of traditional Ph.D. programs that focused mainly on academic and research. DBA tries to address the practical situations, especially concerning the management sector. It is recommended for practicing managers.

Session One

The main keywords/phrases relating to projected expectations for professional doctorate study include:

  1. Traditional Ph.D.: These are the conservative Ph.D. programs that focused mainly on research and academic fields
  2. Empathy for research: To develop an appreciation for the value of applying the research-based practice in business and management.

The main keywords/phrases in relation to the expected core capacities of a DBA graduate include:

  1. Specificity: To be able to focus on a given research field/area and come up with reliable analysis or criteria about the field.
  2. Reflective practice: Being mindful of the surrounding actions/situations and applying theoretical knowledge in analysis and resolving the situation (Easterby-Smith,p48).

Key words/phrases concerning one’s expectations and if they are similar to the given literature facts and opinion include:

  1. Work-based learning: Gaining knowledge/experience when one comes into practical contact with the situation or problem in the real world.
  2. Credit-based assessment/structure: A setup where progression to the next study level in business management would be dependent on one’s previous masters or doctoral qualifications.

Session Two

Key words/phrases in relation to creation and generation of knowledge include:

  1. Assertion: The development of a claim based on the relationship between factors or objects.
  2. Evidence: A past experiences, actions or situations on which one bases his/her knowledge on.
  3. Authority: A rank or expertise in given field/area that gives one credibility on the information reported or shared.

Concerning the contribution of research towards knowledge, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Testable explanation: A claim or statement that can be verified using data from real/current actions/situations (Tan,p78).
  2. Causal: the relationship between two or more actions/objects/claims where one situation may be indicative of one or more other situations.

Concerning the criteria for effective approaches to scholarly research, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Replication: The ability to reproduce data or relations of previous theories or claims.
  2. Epistemology: The knowledge research theory considering the methodology and validity.
  3. Covariation: The degree of variation between two or more factors, fields or even theory.

Session Three

Considering the main historical ‘building block’ themes in the study of management, the main keywords/phrases include:

  1. Interdisciplinary design: Integration of various disciplines in a given program or study
  2. Quintessential discipline-specific academic pursuit: The perfect discipline of the framework of study.
  3. Dissertation: An essay or scholarly article on a given research topic for the award of a doctorate (Simon,p55).

Concerning the key concepts guiding the current study of management, the main key words/phrases are:

  1. Colloquium: An academic meeting to discuss or gain more insight of a given topic or research mainly done by doctorate candidates in the award of their dissertation approval.
  2. Non-traditional practices: A deviation from the past established norms, for example, integration of a research-based program centered on current management trends instead of academic topics.

Session Four

Concerning the differentiation of scholarly research from other research activity, the key terms/phrases include:

  1. Multidisciplinary: Involves/encompasses other fields of study and integrates their principles/concepts in solving current societal issues.
  2. The matrix of functions: The function groups or intentions of a particular research activity based on their type and priority (Simon,p81).

Considering the key characteristics in a management researcher’s approach, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Global mindset: A preformed opinion or choice concerning a given topic/title based on past experiences or acquired knowledge.
  2. Rationality: To be presentable and acceptable both in thoughts and actions by the general public or society.

Session Five

The key phrases/words on the current issues of management research include:

  1. Improvement of Practice: The design to grade the advancement of a given field or practice. Improvement is eminent if there exist problems in pursuit of the laid out goals, but would not deviate one from resolving the intended problem/situation.
  2. Understanding practice: Gaining an insight of the current trends/practices and their routines. Research tends to break these routines to gain knowledge of the situation or practice, why and when they occur (Easterby-Smith,p73).

Concerning the formulation of research questions from the current issues, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Positivism: An approach that recognizes the replicability of a given sense data only obtainable and verified by independent observers.
  2. Interpreted and uninterpreted experiences: Interpreted experiences refer to situations/actions that are construed to indicate a given observation or reaction while uninterpreted ones are taken as vague as they cannot precisely be linked to a particular observation or response.

Session six

Considering the suggested approach (quantitative, qualitative or pluralist) by the research interests, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Quantitative approach: A perspective that focusses more on the size/magnitude of data collected to establish a relation between the given variables
  2. Qualitative approach: An approach that concentrates more on the type and quality of data to be collected to establish the relationship between the given variables.
  3. Pluralist Approach: An approach that integrates both the qualitative and quantitative approach to gain the relationship between the given variables (Bray,p27).

Concerning underpinning the suitable approach, the key words/phrases include:

  1. Action science: A type of technology that asses the relation between people’s interpersonal and organizational effectiveness and the hidden motives that drive them and also the ways to improve this efficiency.
  2. Action learning: A type of technology that is based on the fact that people learn better and faster from real-time activities/experiences.

The key words/phrases on the ethical requirements for conducting research include:

  1. Societal norms: A set of universally accepted code of conduct by which the client, the researcher, and respondent are to adhere to.
  2. Advocacy research: A type of research carried out to back a legal claim or action.
  3. Code of Ethics: A set of rules and regulations that guide the interaction between the researcher, user and client during the research process (Miller,p56).


Bray, Mark, Bob Adamson, and Mark Mason. Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods. Hong Kong, China: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong, 2007. Internet resource.

Easterby-Smith, Mark, Richard Thorpe, and Paul Jackson. Management Research. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2013. Print.

Miller, Tina. Ethics in Qualitative Research. London: SAGE, 2012. Print.

Simon, Marilyn K, and Jim Goes. Dissertation and Scholarly Research: Recipes for Success : a Practical Guide to Start and Complete Your Dissertation, Thesis or Formal Research Project. 2013. Print.

Tan, Seng C, Hyo J. So, and Jennifer Yeo. Knowledge Creation in Education. 2014. Internet resource.