Quantitative Research Designs
Quantitative research design represents an objective, official, and efficient process of obtaining proven information about the world. It commonly focuses on statistics, numbers, and the relationship between the events (Balnaves, & Caputi, 2011). The two types of quantitative research designs are;
- Descriptive Research
- Causal-comparative/quasi-experimental research
- Descriptive Research
The descriptive research design seeks to illustrate the modern status of a variable in focus. Its project is designed to provide logical information about an incident. The researcher usually has to develop a hypothesis after collecting the statistics. The synthesis of the statistics provides the test for the hypothesis. During systematic assortment of information, vigilant choice of the units under study and watchful measurement of different variables are required (Andrew, & Pederson, 2011).
Samples/potential examples of the descriptive research design include;
- A description of how tobacco is used by teenagers
- A description of how second-grade students spend their holidays
- A description of how parents feel about school year
- A description of scientist’s attitudes towards the global warming effect.
- Causal-Comparative/Quasi-Experimental Research
The casual-comparative research design tries to establish the cause-effect relationship between variables in an assessment of fact-based observations (Andrew, & Pederson, 2011). This type of quantitative design is comparable to factual experiments, except with several essential differences. An independent variable undergoes focus without the investigator’s manipulation, and its impacts vis-à-vis the dependent variable are on the agenda. The researcher has to use the naturally formed or pre-existing groups, and after the analysis and conclusion, determining the causes must be done carefully as there might be other variables that may affect the outcome (Nguyen, Trawinski, & Katarzyniak, 2013).
Potential examples/samples of casual-comparative research could include;
- The effect of magnet school participation on student attitude
- The effect of gender on algebra achievement
- The effect of pre-school attendance on social maturity
- The effect of taking multivitamins on a students’ absenteeism
Similarities between the designs
- They both try to determine the causes or reasons for the current status of the features/characteristics
- They are both non-experimental methods of research as they lack management of independent variables under the control of the experimenter, and there is no possible random assignment.
The casual-comparative investigates the possible cause-and-effect relationship by revealing one or more experimental to the treatment conditions and comparing the results to control groups not receiving the treatment. The descriptive method, conversely, describes the systematic features and facts of a given population.
The descriptive method gathers database to describe a situation, entity or event. It includes the forms of design except the experimental and historical, while the casual-comparative method relies on the information collected after the occurrence of the event (Cresweel, 2014).
Ethical, Legal and Social-Cultural Consideration
After the researcher has collected the information, he/she has to share with his/her fellow researchers or students, which eventually impact negatively the interaction with the students. Therefore, the researcher has to wait and share the information during the summer when the schools have closed. The researcher should not employ the pressure of subordinates and students to yield compulsion to contribute in research. They should also be attentive to cultural, gender, and religious differences in the research population in planning and reporting their findings. They should also be sensitive to the integrity of enduring institutional activities and alert appropriate institutional representatives. They have to converse their findings and practical significance of their research in clear, appropriate, and straightforward language with relevant institutional representatives (Herlihy, & Remley, 2010)
An Insight or Conclusion
Both the methods are used to investigate the different claims to knowledge, and they are designed to address the specific area of research. These methods provide an objective measure of reality and understand the complexity of the phenomenon. The methods provide a clear statement that constitutes the techniques used to conduct studies for the research approach. Even though the approach seeks to validate sensory knowledge as truth, absoluteness is not a feature in both.
Andrew, D., & Pederson, P. (2011). Research methods and design in sport management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Balnaves, M., & Caputi, P. (2011). Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: an Investigative Approach. London: Sage Publications.
Cresweel, J. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.
Herlihy, B., & Remley, T. (2010). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling. Boston: Merrill.
Nguyen, N., Trawinski, B., & Katarzyniak, R. (2013). Advanced methods for computational collective intelligence. Heidelberg: Springer.