Sample Paper on Risk Assessment at Centervale Municipal Airport

Conducting a Risk Assessment

Risk assessment has been described as the process by which people or organizations identify possible hazards in an area and examine and gauge the danger and associated risks to decide on the best methods of doing away or handling the danger. The main purpose of conducting risk assessment is to eliminate the danger or minimize its occurrence. This is done by taking the necessary measures aimed at countering the danger in case it happens. In the Centervale Municipal Airport situation, one will have to look at its environment to try and establish the areas, incidences, or activities that may pose dangers to the people working within the Centervale Municipal Airport. When one has identified the possible causes, the next step would be to decide on the measures that should be put in place to eliminate these possibilities and prevent the occurrences of such dangers.

Safety and security within the airport is very important. The passengers would always need the pledge that they are protected and that their safety is guaranteed. Within an airport, safety issues are usually given priorities and the issues range from various sources; the safety that concerns the general operations within the airport (unfavorable environment, wake vortex aspect, noise control) effects of new technology on the safety of the airport, issues of very big airplanes within the airport, and disaster mitigation measures.

Galatchi (2005) expounds that there are systematic approaches in risk assessment that need to be followed when conducting risk analysis. First of all, one has to start from the first step of identifying the danger; the next step would be to assess the frequency and consequences of the hazard. Calculating the risk would then follow and this would lead one to judge the acceptability of the risk. If, from the judgment, one decides that the level of the risk is not acceptable, they would have decided on the areas that need improvement in order to control the hazard and control the possibilities of its occurrence. When, from the judgment, it is concluded that the level of the risk is not so high and lies within the acceptable range, the analyst would have to decide on the acceptable method of reducing this level even lower so that the safety of the people within the environment can be assured.

Conducting a risk assessment is very important especially in areas like the Centervale Municipal Airport. Such areas are very busy and the economy of the whole nation can be greatly affected if these areas are to be affected by any danger. Through risk assessment, the occupational therapists would be able to let the management and the people working with the Centervale Municipal Airport know the possible danger that may occur and the likelihood of its occurrence. The therapist would also be able to tell which category of people within the Centervale Municipal Airport would be more exposed to the danger, and therefore what they need to do to change or prepare for the occurrence of the risk.

From the analysis, the therapist would be able to establish whether the measures put in place to counter the occurrence of the risk are reliable and effective or if they need to be changed. Conducting risk assessment can also help when it is done at the early stages of constructing structures within the Centervale Municipal Airport, as it would incorporate the correct measures and designs aimed at minimizing risk levels. The analysis would help to evaluate which of the risks is more likely to happen and to what degree.

Some of the current methods used in assessing risks in facilities like Centervale Municipal Airport include the Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). This is usually carried out to establish the maintenance (critical maintenance) of structures and equipment within a facility. It is also used to determine if the structures and equipment need to be renewed; it tries to understand which assets are likely to fail to work any time because of age or lack of maintenance. This method has however faced some criticisms that state that it is not easy to judge the variables obtained and that these failures may occur one after the other.

Another method of conducting risks within the Centervale Municipal Airport could be the flight operation risk assessment system (FORAS). This method aims at establishing a collection of possible dangers that can likely occur on a single flight operation in a Centervale Municipal Airport setting. The collection of the items to be evaluated in this system was classified by Heinrich as people, machine, mission objective, the management, and the surroundings. These items, however, differ in various classifications by different people and organizations.

In the modern aviation industry, this system has been used to assess dangers in the areas of traffic control within the Centervale Municipal Airport, airplane operation, management of crew, safety of the aviation systems, among others, but not much attention on the management of Centervale Municipal Airport risk (Feng and Chung, 2013).

According to Canale, Distefano, and Leonardi (2005) the procedures of conducting Centervale Municipal Airport risk assessment are generally grouped into six main steps;

Safety concern and hazard identification: dangers would be described as the conditions that can lead to injury, sickness, death or even damage to Centervale Municipal Airport property. Identification of the risk forms the basis for risk assessment. The stage would involve analyzing the whole process to identify the dangers and also identify some of the things that may cause these risks. The systems are analyzed in order to find any relationship between them and how they can be a potential danger to the whole airport. Some of the items that are evaluated during this stage include; man, the media, the machine, and the management.

Man: this affects many variables in the process of risk management. When selecting the workforce that would be involved in the process, the security administrator must ensure that the people are well trained in disaster mitigation. The administrator must also train them on the steps to take in case of risk occurrence. The workforce should also remain keen and should never be easily stressed and should have adaptive skills. The administrator should ensure that these people are well engaged in the duties and that their morale is always high.

Media:  these refer to the surrounding factors and can be grouped as climatic, operational, hygienic, and pedestrian (areas where workforce walks like pavements)

Machine: these should be used for their purposes alone. They should never be used in works which they are not designed for and they should be well maintained

Management: these are the people who control everything within the facility. It should provide clear directives on procedures, accepted standards and even the measures to take.

Mission: these refer to the intended outcome to be achieved. The mission should be clear to everyone working within a facility.

Identification of the difference between exposure and adverse effects: this involves the administrator assessing the likelihood of the hazard happening. If there is a possibility of it happening, then it becomes a risk. Its effects are then evaluated.

Exposure assessment: This is where the analyst examines the chances of the hazard actually happening and the scale at which it may occur. It involves use of various measures to determine if the hazard can be grouped as a risk. So, in this case, the analyst would assess the exposure of the hazard, then how severe it is, the probability of it happening, and the risk is assessed in totality. Some exposures may lead to risks more often, while others may not. The assessment of the exposure is usually done by carrying out surveys, inspecting the facilities, observing daily operations going on within a facility, or even using tools (mapping) to determine the level of the hazard. These are then recorded in relation to how close they are to the hazard, time, and rate of recurring.

Another aspect of exposure assessment is the severity; this is where the administrator tries to determine the impact of the risk associated with the exposure on human beings, machines, and even the objectives of the work and operations going on within the facility. This is usually based on the worst scenario that can be thought of by the administrator.

Probability assessment of the exposure involves efforts aimed at finding out the recorded number of times that a risk associated with an exposure has happened in the airport environment.

Risk characterization: once the risk has been identified and assessment done, the next step is to evaluate the possible measures that can be applied to help minimize or eliminate the occurrence. The analysts would have to list all the available strategies and tools that can be used in a given case, then evaluate the effect of each strategy, before deciding on which risks to give priority. The risks are also evaluated on their list of priority; which one is more likely to happen and also their degree of affecting their facility

Implementation of the control decisions: – this is the process of deciding the best strategy that one is going to use in controlling the risk’s occurrence. The decision is arrived at after consideration of all the tools and evaluation of their effects. The analysts then use experience, skills, and knowledge to select the most appropriate one. It involves two aspects;

Selection of risk control: in every identified exposure, the administrator would select the measures put in place to counter or minimize the risk associated with it. The most appropriate measures are the ones that are in line with the missions of the facility and use the available resources to the maximum.

Implementation of the measures decision: the administrator would have to examine the risk associated with an exposure and judge the benefits that would accrue if the decision is taken and implemented. The administrator should never forget that the consequences that would occur as a result of implementation of this decision lies with him.

Implementation of the risk control measures: After selection of the risk control tools to use, the therapist would have to work closely with the management and all the people who work within the Centervale Municipal Airport environment. This stage requires commitment from both the management and the workers. One would have to explain how he/she arrived at the selected tools and offer clarity on any issue that may not be clear to any person. The security administrator would have to give clear directives for the implementation of the strategies. The administrator can use examples or photos to make people understand him clearly. The administrator must also know that he or she will be accountable for anything that would happen in the process of the implementation of the strategy.

The administrator should make sure that in every department, there is somebody who would be acting as the command in ensuring that department members stick to the strategies suggested of ensuring that risk occurrences are minimized and eliminated if possible.

Supervising and reviewing: the risk management should never be assumed to be a one-time process. It is continuous, and therefore would require the administrator to do regular supervision on the implementation process of the selected strategies. The administrator must ensure that every individual is doing his or her part in ensuring the success of the process.

This stage involves monitoring to see how effective the selected tools are in combating the risks identified. It is also in this stage that the administrator would be able to establish if there is a need for further assessment to the identified risk and lastly the stage would also involve identification of the lessons learned from the whole process. Through supervision, the administrator will be able to determine whether the measures put in place are active or should be changed, he would also be identifying emerging hazards that were not identified earlier. The administrator will then make necessary adjustments to ensure these new areas are covered

This stage also involves revising. The process should feature systematic flow, and any change that has occurred must be identified and acted upon. The administrator will then find a way by which the corrective measures can be valued.

The benefits of conducting risk assessment on any facility can never be over-looked. The risk assessment exercise would play a major role in helping facilities identify and control hazards and possible risks associated with them. The process would also help in creating awareness among the staff members and can be later used in training of the staff members.

Conducting risk assessment would also help the management in setting standards for risk management. From the exercise, the management would be able to reduce regular incidents occurring within the environment and lastly, managing risk saves costs as it would cost more in restoring the facility after the risk, than it would cost in eliminating these risks (Joanne, 2011).

Some of the risks that are faced by Centervale Municipal Airport include:

Aircraft crash incidents: this is usually accompanied by other incidences like damage to the ground properties, injuries, and even death. It can also be the cause of bushfire if the surrounding area has vegetations, especially during summer. Its evaluation is usually done using the national aviation statistics which would show the likelihood of its occurrence in area. Crashes that happen within the Centervale Municipal Airport are mainly caused by; landing overruns, landing crashes from flights, take-off overruns, take-off overruns, and take-off crashes from flight.

Bird strike: this is not a problem to modern airplanes, but cases have been reported in the past where collision with birds around the Centervale Municipal Airport has caused plane accidents. In the modern days, though, these collisions cause damages to the plane, causing fear among the passengers. The main birds that have been recorded as having affected an airplane are; kestrel, Flying fox, Plover, Swallow, Heron, and Egrets.

Hazards to infrastructure and the surrounding: these hazards include aircraft crashes on dams, bush fire from airplane crash, crash into a big industry e.g. oil refineries, and crash into low-lying electric lines. These hazards posed risks like water contamination of water supply to the Centervale Municipal Airport, smoky Centervale Municipal Airport environment (very dangerous), fire incidences and incidences of aircraft crash.

General hazards: these include areas of security and the management of dangerous goods, among others and may be the cause of risks such as accidents in the runway, terrorism cases, and highly dangerous goods within the Centervale Municipal Airport.

Some of the strategies that can be used to minimize these risks are (Janic, 2000);

Aircraft crash incidents: the management should ensure that runways are clear before any landing or take-off is authorized.

Bird strike: this bird strike risk can be eliminated or minimized by designing the landscape of the areas within the Centervale Municipal Airport in a way that discourages birds from flying around, for example, modifying the areas around the Centervale Municipal Airport to be less attractive to the birds or even selecting some species of animals which are not friendly to birds. This can also be done by minimizing foods available in with the Centervale Municipal Airport, harassing birds, and maintaining the grass at a level that is not inviting for bird activities.

Hazards to infrastructure and the surrounding environment: the strategies that can be used in minimizing or eliminating this risk include constructing of water storages, oil refineries, and dams various kilometers from the Centervale Municipal Airport and also ensuring that no electric lines are constructed next to the runway.

General hazards: there should be well elaborate procedures for handling fuel within the Centervale Municipal Airport, assessment of fire risks and the means of treating injuries from possible risk occurrence.



Costs and benefits

The implementation of the above suggested strategies is very cost effective as none of them would require big withdrawals from the airport authority accounts except in the cases where the management would have to construct additional storages for fuels within the airport. The implementation will however work best if both the airport management and the workforce get committed in ensuring that the strategies that have been suggested are followed and supervised by everyone around the airport.

As a security administrator, one has to identify all the inter-dependent variables, and hence put in place organizational procedures that would help describe the system. He/she would have to determine all situations that may act as a source of airport security and safety breaches. The administrator is also advised that for every perceived hazard, he/she should look for a number of risks and their effects that may be associated with it. He/she would then determine the likelihood of these risks occurring and organize them in their priority order. Lastly, he/she would evaluate the types of measures to put in place in order to minimize or eliminate the identified risks (Catherine, 2012).








Canale, S., Distefano, N., & Leonardi, S. (2005). A risk assessment procedure for the safety management of Airport infrastructures. In 3rd International SIIV Congress.

Catherine, M. (2012).Airport safety: A report to the federal aviation administration.

Feng, C. M., & Chung, C. C. (2013). Assessing the Risks of Airport Airside through the Fuzzy Logic-Based Failure Modes, Effect, and Criticality Analysis. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2013.

Janic, M. (2000). An assessment of risk and safety in civil aviation. Journal of Air Transport Management, 6(1), 43-50.


Joanne, W. (2011).5 benefits of conducting risk assessment. Health and safety handbook