Sample Paper Stage Development Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust

Stage Development
Stage One: Stage 1: Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
1. How can a parent establish basic trust with their infant?
Children mainly rely and trust the parents especially the mother to protect them. They develop trust parents will attend to their basic needs. Thus, parents can establish basic trust with their infants on various ways. First, they should create a secure attachment providing and attending to the infant’s emotional needs. Parents should also spend time with their children to encourage them develop and nurture trust. Thus, the parent should ensure the infant trusts he/she understand his/her facial expressions, body movements, sounds and environments that provide comfort (Kemp, Saisan, Smith and Segal 11).
2. How does establishing basic trust benefit your infant?
Children with basic trust believe the parent can protect them. They are also able to learn to trust other people including secondary caregivers. They develop trust that, the parent will offer social support during the interactions. Consequently, they learn to feel love and empathy for others achieving an emotional balance. More importantly, they develop a healthy self-esteem boosting their confidence and personal awareness from an early age (Kemp, Saisan, Smith and Segal 12).

Stage Two: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1. How is autonomy important to a child’s growth?
Part of the growing process is learning to be independent and being able to do things through trial and error with no interference. Autonomy is important to a child’s growth as it involves a growing process teaching the child to be independent. Thus, it encourages infants to do things on their own without feeling scared, being doubtful, and ashamed for failing. The parent, caregiver, and guardian should allow the child to engage in simple activities to learn right from wrong without interfering (Judie 1).
2. How can parents foster autonomy over guilt and shame?
Allowing a child to try to resolve personal failures on several occasions is vital. For example, a child should be allowed to try to fit a toy in a hole. However, the adult should create a safe environment for the child to do the things they desire. Child proofing the house can avoid objects hitting, cutting, and injuring the child. Interfering inhibits a child’s ability to take responsibility for his/her own actions. Allowing children learn from their mistakes encourages them to discover that mistakes or mishaps have consequences. More importantly, it encourages them to be strong independent persons without feeling guilty or ashamed for being wrong (Judie 1).
Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt
1. How can parents develop self-initiative among children?
This stage is centered on identifying and developing a child’s sense of self-initiative. Thus, parents should encourage children to engage in self-direct plays to develop strong senses of initiative without feeling a sense of guilt for being entitled. Parents and guardians are protectors. They provide the child with comfort if they are hurt from accidents such as falling and hitting the floor. However, they should regulate levels of comfort to encourage the child be explorative. This encourages the child to be playful, explorative, and creative. It also awards a child with opportunities to develop physical and emotional strength to overcome failure, mishaps and sense of guilt. A parent with initiatives allowing children to work out their problems encourages them to grow up to be self-sufficient persons (Kendra 1).
2. Why is it important for a parent or caregiver to allow a child to work problems out on its own?
It is important to encourage children to go through the decision-making process on their own. They learn various problem-solving skills developing feelings crucial in acquiring personal adequacy without feeling guilty for solving personal issues. Thus, a parent or caregiver should promote independence and self-sufficiency in a child that seems reluctant to try new things (Activities That Encourage 3).
Stage Four: Industry versus Inferiority
1. How can parents encourage industry over inferiority?
Children at psychosocial development stage engage in social interactions with family members, friends, and playmates. Consequently, they begin developing sense of pride and accomplishment. These accomplishments can be witnessed in their abilities to solve problems, plays, and attempts to work. Parents praising children encourage them to develop a sense of competence. However, discouraging them motivates children to develop a sense of inferiority (Kendra 1).
Foremost, parents should encourage children to be explorative. Consequently, they should motivate them to be playful. Planning for play dates, visiting amusement parks, and engaging in simple home based activities can encourage a child to develop a sense of responsibility. However, to achieve a sense of competency, the parent should always compliment and congratulate them (Rachelle and Dana 1).
2. Why is it important for parents to foster industry over inferiority?
Industrial children are strong, independent, creative and innovative persons. They grow up to be responsible adults with problem-solving skills. They have clear communication skills applied in common and specific or unique situations to achieve personal and social growth and development. Children with a sense of responsibility also engage in activities displaying respect and equality. Thus, they are able to reflect back to their ideas, opinions, and activities while listening to feedback. This reduces conflicts and misunderstandings regarding the child’s intentions. Consequently, the child is encouraged to engage in critical thinking fostering self-esteem and confidence (Kendra 1).
Stage Five: Identity versus Confusion
1. How can parents promote identity over confusion?
This stage involves development of a personal identity. It is critical for children to develop personal identities. Teens at adolescent stages explore different roles, identities, and behaviors. Developing a strong identity is vital as it lays a foundation for the child to find a direction for a bright future. Thus, this stage motivates and encourages children to be secure, independent, and prepared to face the unclear and undetermined future. However, children without personal identities feel confused, lost, unsure, and insecure. Consequently, they feel out of place in a large world full of opportunities they lack courage to seize. The following simple guidelines can help a parent promote development of an identity among children. Foremost, the parent should constantly ask the child questions without providing the child with answers. This helps the parent to determine the child’s feelings, desires, and hopes. The questions should therefore be crafted to allow the parent get to the crux of the child’s fears as well as weak and strong qualities. The parent can use the answers and discoveries to encourage and motivate the child to achieve their desires. Consequently, the child can determine of the achievements are aligned to their current and future desires. Thus, they develop an identity aimed at achieving their goals and objectives in life. More importantly, the parent should give the child enough space to experiment and discover themselves (Frankel, 129).
2. What are the simple activities a parent can implement to encourage a child develop an identity?
Organization at home is also vital. Placing hooks and wall pegs at the child’s level can encourage them to acquire organizational skills. Clearly marking areas in the house can allow the child to choose their own activities, get the materials they desire and engage in actions complimenting their identity. For example, allowing children get dressed is a simple and easy task. Thus, the child should be allowed to put on their shoes and tie the laces. More importantly, the child should be allowed to choose its own clothing more often when the occasions are permissible. This encourages the child to develop a fashion sense aligned to their identity (Activities That Encourage 5).
Stage Six: Intimacy versus Isolation
This stage is primarily aligned towards a child developing and forming an intimate and loving relationship with other members of the family and society. This stage is mainly witnessed among children dating before they mature to engage in marriage. However, children developing relations with family and friends also experience it. This stage enables children to experience and enjoy love and intimacy without feeling alone and isolated (Kendra 1).

1. How can parents monitor this stage in their children?
Most parents face anxiety when their children begin dating. They fear the girl child will be taken advantage of or the young boy will be bullied. However, it is an inevitable stage of development crucial for the child’s growth into a responsible adult. Foremost, the parents should maintain a free and open channel of communication with the children. They should also encourage them to seek advice and discuss their personal issues. This can motivate children to seek advice from their parents on dating life as they maintain a close and intimate relationship. More so, the parents can freely offer corrective advice without the child being rebellious. Thus, children with intimate relations with their parents apply stronger, stable, and mature skills in dating (Rachelle and Dana 1).
2. How can a child feel isolated?
Children can feel isolated due to various reasons. Foremost, failure to spend time with their parents and family members can make a child feel unappreciated. As a result, they withdraw and isolate themselves from family activities. Secondly, if a child is often bullied by the siblings without parents intervening, he/she can also feel isolated. More so, constantly criticizing a child for failure and mishaps can discourage him/her from engaging in activities they are not familiar to. Consequently, they withdraw as they fear being scolded making them feel isolated from the family and society (Kendra 1).
Stage Seven: Generatively versus Stagnation
1. How can young adults create things developing a sense of purpose?
This stage occurs during middle adulthood. Young adults are conflicted between the need to create or nurture things outlasting them as individuals. Thus, it aims at developing a sense of purpose among the young adults. Failure to develop in this stage makes a person to feel useless as they are disconnected (Kendra 1). According to Frankel, parents should allow their children to make choices for themselves on several occasions. This gradually increases the choices a child can make while growing up developing a sense of responsibility. By undertaking the chores, they grow to be responsible and dependent persons with a sense of purpose at home, school, and playground. However, the chores should not be too complex (Frankel 132).
2. How can young adults nurture things developing a sense of purpose?
Undertaking steps to ensure children learn freedom of choice without being influenced by outside forces can develop a sense of independence and purpose. However, parents should provide children with support, encouragement and motivation. This can teach them to distinguish between valuable and invaluable opportunities and choices that are either helpful or harmful towards their efforts in developing a sense of purpose. Thus, the children learn and distinguish between effective and ineffective social and behavioral models. Consequently, they pick up behaviors supporting their sense of identity and purpose (Aldort 27).
Stage Eight: Integrity versus Despair
1. When does this stage occur?
This final stage begins after an adult attains sixty-five years. As an experienced adult, people look back on the life they have led. They question the life’s quality and meaning. The answers develop a sense of satisfaction, peace, fulfillment, and wisdom. However, it can also encourage them to be bitter and desperate as they regret the kind of life they led (Rachelle and Dana 1). Bringing up a child who has successfully developed and nurtured skills acquired from the previous seven stages, as an adult they are able to grow a peak of adjustment. Thus, they acquire integrity. They trust independent views and can dare to apply new ideas to define roles and self-concepts they believe were formulated with wisdom. Consequently, they do not lack realism as they do not strain, feel guilty or regret the life they led (Kendra 1).
2. How can adults achieve integrity over despair?
Despair can be characterized with disgust, regret, and confusion. Developing strong personality comprises of rudiment and tentative knowledge. The skills can be applied in complex and difficult situations to accomplish life goals and objectives. More importantly, despair can be prevented through socialization. It is a process among humans in developing senses, creativity, independence and success. Thus, socialization can achieve integrity over despair and disgust (Rachelle and Dana 1).

Works Cited
Activities That Encourage (ATE). Using Games to Promote Communicative Skills in Language Learning, The Internet TESL Journal, 2003. Print.
Aldort, Naomi. Nurture Shock: New Thinking about Children, Early Childhood Development, 2009. Print.
Frankel, Fred. Social Problems Associated with ADHD vs. ODD in Children Referred for Friendship Problems, Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 33(1): 125-146, 2002. Print.
Judie, Nelson. Parenting: Qualities of a Good Role Model, Demand Media Inc, 2014. Web 16th Oct 2014:
Kemp, Gina, Saisan Joanna, Smith Melinda and Segal, Jeanne (2009). Bonding with Your Baby: Parenting Advice for Developing a Secure Attachment Bond, Help Guide.
Kendra, Cherry. Psychosocial Stages: The Eight Stages of Human Development, Theories of Personality Development, 2013. Web 16th Oct 2014
Rachelle, Feiler and Dana Tomonari. Stages of Growth Child Development – Early Childhood(Birth to Eight Years), Middle Childhood (Eight to Twelve Years), The Science of Early Childhood Development. Web 16th Oct 2014