Sample Political Science Essay on Majoritarian democracy

Chapter 1

  1. Majoritarian democracy

Majoritarian democracy is a type of democracy in which most of the decisions affecting the society are made by a group of people who are the majority in that society. This group is at times chosen from the majority religion, social class or even ethnic group. This type of democracy is not always the best because it allows for the making of biased decisions such that the fundamental rights of all citizens may not be protected.

  1. Representative democracy

Representative democracy is where the citizens choose their leaders. These leaders represent the people and are believed to have the people’s best interest at heart. It is the most common system of democracy. Once elected, these representatives form an institution such as parliament that enables them to attend to the needs of the citizens faster.

  1. Pluralism

This is a participatory rule. In political pluralism, the needs of the majority determine how a country is ruled. It is based on stable democratic principles and a tolerance contradictory opinion. Each person decides how to run his or her life depending on the rights and freedoms.

  1. Explain factionalism

People always align themselves with others with whom they share desires, opinions and views. Since time immemorial human beings have always had the need to be partisan and through this factionalism is born. It is the formation of groups or parties of people who share a common interest, views and ideas.

Chapter 2

  1. Explain the Articles of Confederation

This is an article that was drafted in 1776 by the Continental Congress, as an agreement made by the 13 founding states of the U.S.A that established it as a union of independent states. It provides for a strong federal government headed by a president and for state governments headed by senators.

  1. Explain the difference between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan

These two plans were geared at helping to set up the Constitution of the U.S.A. These two plans had some differences, the main difference being that the New Jersey plan proposed that there should be an equal number of representatives in both the Senate and Congress while the Virginia plan proposed that Congress should have more people such that it should be the more powerful House.

  1. Explain how to amend the U.S. Constitution

The U.S.A Constitution is amended as stipulated in Article V. First, a proposal for amendment is made by the legislature or the States. The amendment is afterwards endorsed by at least three quarters of the States.

  1. Explain Checks and Balances/Separation of powers

Separation of powers is a way in which the responsibilities of the different arms of government are specified and separated such that each arm of government becomes independent and is not answerable to the other. With separation of powers, the need for checks and balances arises so as to ensure that the different arms of government do not abuse their powers.

Chapter 3

  1. Explain the concept of Equal Protection under the Law

This is a concept that provides for fair and equal treatment of all in regards to same access to the law and courts and right to be treated equally by the law and courts. It is granted by the Equal Protection Clause.

  1. Explain Mapp v. Ohio

It is a case that set the precedence that evidence obtained in a way that violated the Fourth Amendment could not be used in state criminal law procedure

  1. Gideon v. Wainright

It is a case setting precedence that a defendant who is unable to pay an attorney must be given counsel by the States as stipulated in the Fourteenth Amendment.

  1. Explain Miranda v. Arizona

In this case, it was decided that the both inculpaltory and exculpatory statements of the accused during an interrogation by the police are only admissible in trials if it is shown that the defendant is aware of his or her right to consult an attorney and the right against self-incrimination before the questioning and that these were waivered willingly by the defendant.

 

Chapter 4

  1. Explain how the grandfather rule, the poll tax, and the literacy test excluded blacks from voting

The poll tax levied before voting ensured that blacks, who were all poor, were excluded from voting. The literacy test, excluded many blacks from exercising their right to vote in that most of them were not educated and could not pass this test. The grandfather clause stated that those who had voting rights as at 1867 did not have to pay vote tax or to undergo literacy tests before voting and since the blacks were majorly slaves in 1867, they did not have voting rights and as such this clause excluded them from voting.

  1. Explain Plessey v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board

This case sustains the constitutionality of state laws in tolerating racial separation in public amenities. It came about after Louisiana enacted a law requiring different accommodation for different races on railroads.

  1. Explain Affirmative Action

Affirmative action is used to ensure equality among various groups of people. In affirmative action, the groups that were previously discriminated are given more opportunities and in so doing, it is seen to rid society of discriminative practices.

  1. Explain the Civil Rights Act of 1964

This is a law that allowed for federal action opposing segregation in public places and facilities. It is a law that aims at stopping segregation and discrimination.

  1. Explain the Civil Rights Act of 1965

This Act provides for federal monitoring of elections to ensure that there is no discrimination whatsoever in the election process.

  1. Explain the Civil Rights Act of 1968

This Act provides for same housing opportunities despite differences in racial, creed or social backgrounds.

Chapter 5

  1. Explain block grants, categorical grants, and federal mandates

Block

It is a big amount of funds that is given to a local government by the federal government without stipulated provisions for its use other than the general requirements.

Categorical grants

This grant is offered with stern and explicit conditions as to its use.

Federal Mandate

This is a provision allowing the federal government to impose a duty on a state.

  1. Explain express power, implied power, and inherent power
  2. Implied– These are powers that are bestowed upon a government but are not written in the Constitution. They allow the government to carry out its duties fully. The inherent powers Claus state that congress has the power to create any law required so as to fulfill the Constitution of the U.S.A.

Inherent- Inherent powers are powers not expressly stated in the Constitution but are given to the government simply because it is a sovereign government. These include the powers to control a country’s borders.

Expressed-It is the power given to specific officials through the Constitution and is therefore expressly written down in the Constitution.

Chapter 6

  1. Explain the franking privilege

This is a privilege that is enjoyed by elected officials in which they can send mails through the postal system free. The administrator’s signature replaces the stamp.

  1. Define public opinion

Public opinion is the desires and attitude of the people with regards to political issues in the country and is mostly determined through polls.

  1. Explain polling and multistage cluster samples

Multistage cluster sampling is a type of sampling in which from the clusters created sample elements are randomly chosen from each cluster making it faster to collect data. Polling samples are formed through random and stratified sampling. They ensure an accurate representation of the desired voters in a particular district.