The positive symptoms can be recognized easily by the people around the victim since these symptoms can be manifested through unusual speech or behavior. These symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, abnormal motor behavior, and disorganized behavior (Barch). In contrast, negative symptoms are hardly recognized by people. These symptoms include motivation and reduced speech (Barch).
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Hallucinations are experiences that appear real in the absence of an external stimulus. People who experience them tend to talk to themselves or shout at other people since, in their minds, they hear voices talking, ordering, or commenting something about them or other people. Delusions are false beliefs about reality. For instance, a person may believe that a police officer intends to hurt him or her while that may not be the case. Similarly, a victim may believe that someone is controlling or reading his or her mind. Alternatively, the victim may believe that he or she is in control of other people’s minds. A person exhibiting disorganized speech tends to utter words or sentences that are not meaningful. Disorganized behavior is displayed when a victim dresses unusually or wears odd makeup. On the other hand, a person experiencing abnormal motor behavior tends to display characters that reflect a poor response to the external environment. For instance, when questioned by someone else, a victim does not respond to the question. Motivation occurs when a person’s ability to engage in social activities is reduced. On the other hand, reduced speech is experienced when a person has a low amount of speech or long pauses between speeches. Alternatively, Barch argues that a person may fail to display emotions through facial expressions and gestures.
According to Jones and Fernyhough, the model suggests that stress acts upon an already existing schizophrenic susceptibility by its effects on cortisol production, thus triggering and worsening the symptoms of schizophrenia. The model considers stressors as a uniform grouping. It hypothesizes that stressors activate or increases the signs of schizophrenia in those with pre-existing vulnerability.
NCBI states that those people at genetic risk should apply therapeutic approaches, including pharmacological interventions like olanzapine and risperidone, dietary interventions like Omega-3 fatty acids, in addition to psychological interventions like cognitive intervention therapy, integrated intervention therapy as well as supportive counseling.
Barch, Deanna. “Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.” NOBA. 2019 https://nobaproject.com/modules/schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders. 4 Dec. 2019.
NCBI. “Preventing Psychosis and Schizophrenia: Treatment Of At Risk Mental States.”NCBI. 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK333025/. 4 Dec. 2019.