Identify and examine the benefits of bilingual education and the major obstacles to its implementation
Bilingual Education is a learning style that involves teaching the same lesson in two different languages. This occurs mostly in situations where the learners are from different cultures, making it challenging to deliver lessons in a single language. In the United States for instance, cultural diversity has rapidly materialized in the preceding decades. As noted in the Clinton administration’s proposed Educational Excellence for All Children Act of 1999, multilingualism is becoming increasingly important because of the growing diversity within the United States and the expanding international connections (Riley 78). For the public, comprehensive Bilingual Education strengthens the state from both external and local dimensions. On the individual perspective, Bilingual Education en heightens intellectual development as well as socio-cultural communication competence.
The most widely cited practical reason for Bilingual Education is upholding of children’s first language, which facilitates their acquisition of secondary languages. The more convincing and important, yet often overlooked, maintaining one’s heritage language involve the emotional aspects, including pride in one’s ethnic group, enhanced self-esteem among bicultural individuals and the facilitation of meaningful intergenerational communication within the learner’s non-English-speaking family and community (Ann & Cressy 247).
English-speaking students should find a bicultural setting particularly enriching both academically and personally. Unlike their minority peers, most mainstream U.S. scholars grow up in monolingual families and in a community where native languages and culture are the norms. The interpersonal and intercultural competence required by the multiethnic environment they increasingly cannot avoid would be greatly enhanced by acquiring the language of their neighbors and future colleagues and, at the same time, from learning how non-native speakers from other cultural backgrounds communicate in English. While the later objective often is overlooked, it is as significant as the former in terms of developing intercultural-communication skills and cross-cultural sensitivity. Moreover, multilingual capacity and attained intercultural-communication skills and cultural competency expand the career choices available to individuals and facilitate the complex social identification required for today’s increasingly diverse living and working environment. In short, Bilingual Education should be concerned with both the language skills and the multicultural competency that can be enhanced by second-language proficiency (Ann & Cressy 248).
It was assumed however that, the non English speaking children could assimilate the English language effortlessly but they ended up struggling with understanding and actually failed to put up with the basic subjects. Many schools in the State then devised innovative programs to meet the needs of these needy children. Bilingual teaching enables the pupils to take basic subjects in their local languages while studying English as a Second language. This system of education is effective in capturing the non English speaking children in schools and providing equitable education to all members of the society. However, in simple observation, the system is marred with numerous limitations and obstacles to its success. These limitations include inadequacy of learning materials. In the rural education setting in the United States, for example, schools are devoid of learning resources for the non English-speaking children, there is a limited number or completely no publications in any other language apart from English as a result of limited marketability (Ann & Cressy 247).
Teachers and Social workers in these kinds of setup are required to have deeper understanding of the cultural backgrounds of their respective pupils; they need to have intrinsic understanding of the various tribes and their languages. For instance, Frank in his job at the Valdez Middle School, he needed to understand the customs of the Hispanic people, their dating customs and their family settings; he needed to understand sex-role behaviors and authority patterns. Another shortcoming of this learning system is the shortage of bilingual instructors and resistance to bilingual education (Ann & Cressy 247).
What are the populations that are most at risk for developing a substance abuse problem and explain why these populations are at risk?
Among the most at risk population for developing substance abuse problems are the women and their children. Studies reveal that just a small percentage of women consume alcohol heavily as compared to men, however, a much smaller percentage of this group can access treatment services. Among the reasons for this case is the societal perception of addicted women as immoral or irresponsible (Ann & Cressy 289). According to Downs and Miller lifelong exposure to traumatic experiences causes glow self esteem among these women, self disguise and eventually end up pressed much more into further substance abuse. Some abuse alcohol as a nervous system sedative when they feel depressed. For instance, women living in violent marriages are often exposed severe stress and depression leading to the urge to abuse drugs as a means of calming their nerves. Children learn best from the environment around them, thus, the children of the addicted women may learn to abuse substance through exposure to alcohol by their mothers making them equally at risk of developing substance abuse problems. This is largely exhibited in the Native American women who abuse drugs in the context of their history of trauma, and poverty among other numerous factors. Most of these women require counseling to enlighten their focus and in severe cases they could be hospitalized or rehabilitated. Other counseling therapies are also vital in the addiction treatment process (Ann & Cressy 290).
Other vulnerable groups include the older adults; this group of individuals approaching their retirement age is largely affected due to the physical and social changes that occur with aging. There has also been devastating effects of drugs on the African American families resulting into drug related family violence, crime, imprisonment and foster care for the children. The other group is that of persons with disabilities who would chose to abuse drugs just to make their lives bearable (Ann& Cressy 290).
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of group treatment of alcoholics
Empirical research has not established that group treatment is superior to the other forms of treatment however, it is apparent that group treatment has numerous advantages than the other modes of treatment. Among the potential advantages of group treatment programs are the facts that they alleviate social stigma among individuals. Stigma associated with addiction is one of the main derailing factors to treatment of alcoholics. Bringing peers together on treatment enhances identification with peers along the recovery. Group treatments are confrontational, making denial of drug dependence less possible and can help individuals achieve a certain level awareness that is essential to the development of self control. However, groups on the other hand are not viable treatment options especially for persons under chemical dependence. Such individuals need ample space and effective approaches to tolerate the emotional intensities encountered in the groups; they sometimes find these group effects devastating for their conditions. Such situations would require more skillful interventions by the service providers which would involve more training (Ann & Cressy 284).
Identify and describe the major link between disaster and abuse of alcohol
The most prominent link between disaster and alcohol abuse is that most individuals tend to rely on alcohol as a means of relieving their suffering or disastrous conditions. Studies consistently reveal that, alcohol consumption increases in the initial stages of a disaster either manmade or natural. With the passing time, the link is softened. Then again, misuse of alcohol enhances Exposure to maltreatment, violence and severe emotional stress. Most African American families for instance are marred by household violence, which in turn contributes largely to the indulgence into alcoholic habits in both men and women (Ann & Cressy 305).
Discuss the role of social work in working with older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. How would you begin to intervene with this older adult and the older adult’s family?
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most pronounced chronic illnesses affecting older adults in the present world. It exhibits adverse effects on both the physical as well as the mental capabilities of the older adults. This illnesses has enormous burden on the society, it is a difficult to diagnose disease since it has no specific laboratory test. It has indications similar to those of depression, stroke and dozen other debilitating conditions. Family members of the affected individuals provide personal care in addition to the hospital interventions (Ann & Cressy 327). This could translate to severe stress and depression for the family members. It therefore requires the intervention of social workers to offer humanitarian services, counseling and other related support initiatives (Ann & Cressy 327).
The social workers can also help examine the important functioning of the afflicted elderly individuals by helping with exercise for their remaining faculties. Social workers have the responsibility of identifying the most appropriate interventions to be used for different individuals, they could offer home based services to the affected persons, and this could help in capturing the entire family and dealing with their issues and addressing their fears collectively. On the other hand, these could organize he affected individual and their families into small support groups and initiate a nursing home based program which would be vital in assessing and implementing the medical side of the treatment procedures by professional nurses (Ann & Cressy 327).
These elderly persons, especially in the United States are very important members of the society since they take up a significant number of volunteer services within the community. Through these services, it would be prudent to incorporate the family members of the older adults in volunteer programs, offer ongoing counseling services to enlighten them on the illnesses and the challenges that aging comes with. In regard, they would have deeper understanding of the older adult and provide the relevant support required. This incorporation would also enhance alleviation of stress among the family members. Social workers play an important role in linking the older adults with the health facilities as well as other humanitarian programs within the community. They also act as a linkage between the older adults and the younger generation through initiation of play activities, tutorials offered by the elderly among other social networking activities (Ann & Cressy 328). Essentially, the only most convenient cost effective approach towards dealing with the societal challenges facing the older adults as well as their families is the intervention of social work.
Older adults take responsibility of foster parents to many children; they adopt children and keep them as part of their families. Aside from caring for their families, older adults presently play important roles in caring for the members of the larger community, for instance, the United Sates senator for Maryland Barbara Mikulski who served at-risk children and educated older adults about Medicare. Like Barbara, Social workers can actively take part in defending the rights of the underprivileged individuals such as the older adults. They can help prevent state operations that are likely to result into negative effects on the health and prosperity of a given society. Barbara helped prevent the construction of the road in Baltimore through her social work influence (Ann & Cressy 327).
Social work interventions begin from building a firm rapport with family members as well as the larger community. Role playing and Systematic sensitization are among the most reliable means of approaching treatment interventions among the family members (Ann & Cressy 328).
What are the major concerns for social workers employed in criminal justice settings? What recommendations would you make to social workers to address each one?
Social workers act as the link between the inmates, the community and the prison administration, they link information and services within these area. However, with regard to most policies laid in the prisons system, they find it difficult to deliver the best services to the inmates. There is scarcity of resources, education facilities and stringent policies affecting the inmate community. There is lack of systems that allow the inmates to exchange information directly with their families especially children and their mothers. This becomes challenging especially in emergency situations, it becomes quite difficult to break certain news to the families of the inmates. In this respect, social workers should find effective methods of working closely with the prison administration to relax certain policies and allow free information flow among the inmates as well as the in mates and their families. This would enable the social workers to adequately update important information concerning the inmates, their families and the other relevant segments of the prisons. Social workers should seek the central government intervention especially on matters education and health to provide inmates equal quality services as the outside community (Ann & Cressy 366).
The government should establish standardized educational and health facilities within the prisons and systems put in place to allow the inmates to spend time with their families. Another concerning issue is the hostility within the prisons. The fights and riots within the prisons are common occurrences and are not only limited to the fighting among inmates but also to forced labor in the wardens homes. For the female inmates for instance, several incidences of sexual abuse are reported (Ann & Cressy 367).
In most cases, inadequate facilities in the jailhouses cause overcrowding culminating into the tension and the violent experiences in the prisons. The inmates however, lack voice of defense on their favor and in spite of filing cases of violence and other abusive incidences, and investigations conducted, there is still rising cases of exploitation and violence in these correctional facilities. Social workers in the prisons have been appointed as spokespersons to express the feelings and opinions of the inmates. Social workers should initiate forums and activities bringing together the various members of the correctional community to enlighten them on the rights and freedoms of individuals and the repercussions violating them come with. They should also incorporate other social programs such as sporting activities to build reasonable bonds amongst the inmates as well as among inmates and the wardens as a means of bringing unity and respect between them thus prevent violence and abuse. The social workers should also advocate for collective service among inmates to prevent possibilities of confinement that would lead to abuse or violence (Ann & Cressy 367).
The challenge of homosexual relationships is also pronounced due to lack of heterosexual outlets. The relationships are a source of violent activities emanating from jealousy and heated altercations. Through educational and skill building programs; reality therapy, behavior modification, transactional analysis and other educational services should be enhanced in the prisons as measures to curb rising trends of misconduct in these facilities and promote effective all-round correctional results. Another apparent concern is that, correctional service for both men and women are built and implemented on equal and similar structures, these causes much harm to the women causing severe effects of stress and relapses after the correctional period. The prison structures should be created in line with the persons involved; there should be clear lines of separation between the service offered to the men and those offered to the women. For instance, the level and kinds of hard labor offered in the prisons should differ in intensity depending on the gender of the person involves (Ann & Cressy 368).
Identify and describe three at-risk populations within the criminal justice system
The criminal justice covers almost all aspects of the human population, women, youths, men, children, and the elderly in the society. The most at risk populations include; women; in the criminal justice, women are most vulnerable to maltreatment and violent acts. Most prison facilities and systems are designed for and operated by men. Considering the hard labor in the prisons, women are exposed to severe stress and highly susceptible to alcohol and substance dependence. In other cases, women are exposed to forced labor in the wardens’ homes leading to sexual abuse and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among other conditions. There is no clear classification of prison systems for women based on the needs in treatment areas such as drugs and substance abuse counseling, obstetric and gynecological health care. Due to the confinement in the prisons, women lack connection with their children hence lack parenting skills; this exposes their children to maltreatment and eventual addictions, lack of guidance and severe depression. Despite the efforts of the social workers in trying to empower the women within the criminal justice department, policies and structures in the correctional facilities still pose tremendous challenge in achieving the intended goals of helping these women recover from the societal malpractices (Ann & Cressy 375).
Another most vulnerable group in the criminal justice system is poor people. Poor people, largely comprising African Americans living in households with income less than $7,500 experience property crime including theft, household burglary and carjacking. These individuals experience numerous criminal related victimizations due to their meager resources. Individuals in the poor households are most likely to indulge in criminal activities as well as other societal malpractices such as drug abuse. Given the huge underrepresentation of the poor communities and the fact that crime s one way of surviving poverty, studies could be giving the exact picture of the actual situation in the African American households. It is an apparent challenge to social workers in their endeavor to work with the poor population (Ann & Cressy 389).
The other group is the elderly people. The increasing numbers of elderly individuals in the population increases the rate of older people’s imprisonments as well. Correctional systems have inadequate structures to support the elderly individual. There are no health related facilities and geriatric units for the elderly persons. Exposure to the stress and unhealthy conditions in most prison units exposes the elderly persons to possibilities of contracting illnesses among other health deteriorating effects. Geriatric incarcerates present a challenge to state administration. Costs control in the presently strained economy is difficult resulting into early release of prisoners, especially those with minor charges. Elderly inmates are normally viewed as less harmful to the outside community as compared to the younger prisoners hence are mostly subject to community correctional policies as a model of cutting on costs. In the years 2008 and 2009, certain administrative pacts such as North Carolina, Alabama, and Washington, enacted law reform which introduced the community correction for the elderly. However, in spite of the policies, some of the states still detain the elderly prisoners (Ann & Cressy 390).
Ann, Mary, S. & Cressy, Caroline, W. “The Social Work Experience: An Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare,” New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2013. Print.
Riley, Richard. N. “Regarding the Educational Excellence for All Children Act of 1999, May 19, 1999.” Web. December 17, 2014. http://www.ed.gov/ Speeches/05-1999/eseastmt.html.