Sample Research Paper on Economical Impacts of Single Parenthood

Economical Impacts of Single Parenthood
Introduction
Parenting is a vital family aspect from both the children and the parents’ perspective. The modern world saw a rise of single parents that raise kids without any aid of the other partner. The causes of single parenting have always been based on various reasons while the aftermath effects have always had serious implications on the social and economic setting of the community. This has therefore necessitated the study of the single parenting by various researchers but most significantly; this study will seek to address the impact of single parenting on the economy. Single parenting refers to situation where one parent, living without a spouse, is responsible for all the daily activities of raising the kids. That single parent is generally viewed as the main caregiver and has the custody of the children always.
Various issues of life cause single parenting. They include divorce or separation of a married couple. When a divorce or separation case is filed, the authorities rules over the case and determines who is to be the caregiver of the children. Moreover, one of the couples may request to be allowed to be the sole caregiver of the children. In addition, single parenting is on the rise in the recent past. This geometrical increase was largely attributed to two factors: increased births among unmarried women and the increased rate of divorce among couples. In most cases, single parenting may be seen as a forsaken responsibility by either of the partners who opt to abandon the other in raising the children.
Nevertheless, there could be other reasons leading to single parenting, especially if an adult man or woman opts to adopt a child and raise them as their own without necessarily being in a marriage institution. In such a case, the adopting parent is a single parent, given responsibility to raise the children by the government or other concerned authorities. In addition, single parenting may result from the death of one partner in wedlock, and the deceased choose to raise the children on their own. Scholars states that in the case of divorce or separation, the children stays with their custodial parent and visits or have secondary residence with the noncustodial parent. In European societies, marriage separation leaves kids in the hands of the mother who gives the primary nurture, and the father becomes the secondary custodian. Single parenting is a challenge to both the children and the single parent and counseling is a good suggestion to both.
Single parenting has changed over time. In the last two decades, single parenthood would be seen as an irresponsibility of a particular partner, who neglects their duties, leaving the role of raising children with the other. However, in the current generation, single parents are well embraced in a society, because the show a high level of determination to raise good families. It is not a wonder that we have great people, leaders, sportsmen and sportswomen, many celebrities and great business people who are raised by single parents. In addition, in the cases of early pregnancies to young girls, it is advisable to sire a child rather than procuring an abortion to avoid parenting.
In recent past, statistics depict a broad increase of kids who live with single parent globally. Single parenting is a phenomenon that has been on the rise since 1960. In 1960, a census report carried out indicated that approximately 9% of the children in the United States are raised by single parents (Haugen, Musser & Berger, 2012). The number has significantly increased over the years to about 28% as reported by the census that was carried out in 2000 (Bodenhorn & National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006). This geometrical increase was largely attributed to two factors: increased births among unmarried women and the increased rate of divorce among couples. The increase in single parenthood has been a matter of interest to economist due to the detrimental effects it has on the economy. This study thus focuses on establishing the causes of single parenthood and the effects it has on the economy.
Economic Effects of Single Parenting
Single parenting has led to several effects on the society, which can be classified as social, psychological, and economic. These impacts could be either good or bad. Single parenting has always been attributed to improve the economic lifestyle of a single parent family unit. However, this change is a long-term process most exhibited in single parenthood families headed by mothers. The mothers will always strive to give their children the best that would have been accorded to them as their fathers would have been available (Hayman, 2008). This would always make the children work extra hard in schools to improve the lives of their single parents. Studies indicate that most hard working students are from single parents who would wish to alleviate their single parents from poverty (Bodenhorn & National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006). In a positive way, single parent raised children work harder and advance the economy of a society to alleviate poverty at their homes.
However, single parenting implies several negative impacts on a given economy. The 2010 US census shows that approximately 52% of the poverty rates are attributed to single parenting caused by various factors (Bogetic, Ulatov, Emelyanova & Smits, 2008). Single parents from divorced marriages will require that the woman take custody of the child or children while the man provides for the needs of the children and the divorced wife. The divorced husband is most probably married to another wife, thus, forcing the man to cater for the needs of the two families, which is an expensive affair as compared to running one family. This leads to increased “cost of living” for the man, as he has to pay for the rent, power, education fees, and many other needs for both families (Hayman, 2008).
Single parenting has also been observed to lead to slow economic growth. This can be analyzed by understanding the hardships involved in single parenting. A happy family unit is composed of both a mother and a father who struggle in the course of economic challenges together. However, in single parenting the parent is all alone to deal with the economic hardships of raising the children. This leads to mental torture and lowers productivity of the single parent. Lower productivity has a direct impact on wages as employees pay laborers according to their level of productivity, thus the single parent will earn lower wages due to lower productivity. Lower wages implies that the consumption level of the economy will also be lower, thus leading to low output level. In the short run, there will be slow economic growth while in the end the economy experiences limited economic development (Haugen, Musser & Berger, 2012).
Single parenting can also lead to decline in the investment level of a country. Most couples usually tend to have mutual investments in projects such as business and real estates. Upon the death or separation of a partner, the shares are normally sold off at throwaway price. The income generated from the sale of the investment attracts a tax liability (Hayman, 2008). This leads to decline in the investment of the country that affects the output level of the economy, which also determines the economic performance of a country. In conclusion, single parenting has both positive and negative effects on the economy, but the negative effects are adverse. This therefore requires that stringent measures should be put in place to ensure that the vice is reduced as it hurt the economic growth of a country that will consequently lead to minimal or no economic development.
References
Bodenhorn, H., & National Bureau of Economic Research. (2006). Single parenthood and childhood outcomes in the mid-nineteenth century urban south. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research
Bogetic, Z., Ulatov, S., Emelyanova, O., & Smits, K. (2008). United States economic report No.16 (June 2010), The World Bank
Haugen, D. M., Musser, S., & Berger, R. M. (2012). The US census. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Hayman, S. (2008). Single parenting. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Companies.