Current Information Technology Trends Used In Management: GIS and Cloud Computing
GIS is a platform that has been used to view locations, conduct routing and mapping activities, As well as analyze information. It has enabled the users to monitor and manipulate data from a centralized unit. Cloud computing on the other hand offers the users a chance to conduct their transactions from a network. This implies that they do not have to attend their offices or physically meet clients. In light of that, this paper compares technological publications that review the use of GIS and cloud computing to get insightful informatio
Effective conveyance of information in an organization is an integral way of ensuring that the firm is gearing towards achieving its set objectives.Relaying of information has evolved since the error of messengers in the office to the current e-communication platforms such as email (Kouyoumjiann.p). This has been enabled by the technological advancement over the years making communication an effective tool for management. Information technology can be defined as the expertise employed in distributing information through the telecommunication gadgets. It encompasses manipulating data to understandable output to the audience. The infrastructure, resources, and systems involved in information technology are monitored and controlled from a centralized unit called the information technology management. There is a centralized information processing system that provides efficient data management. Likewise, information technology is instrumental to the managers of an organization (Payne 444). It aids in initiating habitable communication between the management team, members of staff, clients, and all other stakeholders. In light of this, information technology keeps on evolving and emerging in order to offer efficient services to the users. Therefore, this study delves into publications that highlight emerging information technologies used for management.
Sadoun and Al-Bayariauthored the article LBS and GIS Technology Combination and Applicationsthat highlights how IT acts as a managerial tool. These authors validate that IT has become an integral unit of management that cannot be overlooked and that it keeps in evolving. According to Sadoun and Al-Bayari, an organization is defined by the information resources it is able to acquire and maintain. That is why their article talks of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and its applications as the developing form of information technology. Firms are in the urge of operating at speed and efficient way in spite of the looming communication challenges. Data should be digested, manipulated, and analyzed effectively in order to perform organizational duties with speed.GIS enables the conception of a digital representation of objects from the realism. These features are referred to as features, which are illustrated in either a point, line, or a polygon to represent an actual thing such as a parking lot or power line. Sadoun and Al-Bayar explains that GIS enables the user to link, or integrate information that is somehow challenging to associate in any other form (579). This form of technology aids in avails a set of tools that perform an array of distinguished functions and it makes data sharing among department easy.
Most importantly to note is that GIS is not a current invention, but it undergoes numerous modifications to suit new challenges and situations. In an organization setting, GIS is equally important as any other form of information technology such as Management Information Systems. Given on the representation features it offers GIS aids in managing the organizational layout among the departments(Payne 455). It can be used to gain a better understanding regarding the geography of the place such as the area covered by the organization, its neighborhood, and the stakeholders. This information can be segmented into smaller units such as departments, offices, parking area, the entrance, and the stores among others. GIS enables the controller to monitor all these places from a centralized place and determine the operations in the organization. Sadoun and Al-Bayari also gives another importance of GIS which is the analytical feature (582). Analysis can be used to compile data from the records and provide a comparison. For example, GIS can determine the race or income propensity of the people in the organization.Most interestingly, GIS has the ability of routing and map-making what is generally referred to as cartography. Routing enhances the controller of GIS to find an alternative route from the obvious one; for example, where would traffic diverge to if the main entrance was closed. Actually, it is very important in cases of emergences and outbreaks. This is enabled by applications such as MapQuest that update center information periodically. GIS also is usable in making presentation to an audience. The ability to visualize the components displayed by GIS offers the presenter an opportunity to make an exhibition easily.
Sadoun and Al-Bayari concludes talking about GIS by asserting that it incurs huge investment; hence, single entities are unable to install (583). Government and multinational corporates are most likely able to invest in GIS in order to locate their operations. For example, Amazon and DHL may require GIS in order to monitor their cargo and resources when on transit. GIS/GPS was used to control and manage the famous “Vision Wildfire” by data layers collected through Google Earth.Sadoun and Al-Bayari continue to say that public information is vital and it should be availed to all(578). This is because information is power but the control of information is the ultimate power.
On the other hand, KouyoumjianVictoria reviews the current evolution of GIS in her article, The New Age of Cloud Computing and GIS. The article begins by admitting that information technology is consumed by almost every organization and that it is rapidly changing each day-break. The technological advancement sets the cloud architects into task of researching and developing ArcGIS which is a cloud form of GIS (Kouyoumjiann.p). ArcGIS performs similar operations as the old GIS as it is able to compile and compare data, routing and mapping, analyzing, and making presentations.Therefore, cloud computing refers to the utilization of computing services which include the software and hardware over a network. It enables the user to interact with his or her work from a distance without necessary visiting the office or place of work. In simple terms, Kouyoumjian explains how to deploy GIS on the cloud; the pros and cons involved (n.p). As mentioned earlier by Valerie, GIS enables the interpretation and integration of information which would rather be complex and tedious. Cloud computing leverages costs and the number of infrastructure involved in GIS operations. According to Kouyoumjiancloud computing enables the scaling up and scaling down of data, eliminating the use of client-servers with the single-purpose systems, and can be shared by many organizations or individuals.
As opposed to traditional GIS, cloud GIS or computing comprises of three main options. They include Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).SaaS enables the users to acquire services online without physically interacting with the service provider. In management, SaaS is an important component where there are applications such as customer relationship management (CRM). Such applications aids in integrating the organization with the clients without meeting physically.
PaaS is integral in management as it provides an application platform, which is owned and maintained by the cloud vendor. IaaS primarily encompasses that hardware and technology for computing such as the operating systems. All these options have distinct benefits to the organization using them. Firstly, an organization can create a global workforce and a nocturnal mode of working. This means that the organization remains productive 24/7 and it is accessible from the browser regardless of the time zone. Another benefit is that it reduces the amount of infrastructure that the company would invest in. Cloud computing enhances speed and efficiency in the work place because they rely on networks.
Additionally, services and products offered on cloud platform have the advantage of trying before purchase. It is unfortunate to purchase a product and find out that it is not worth or it is obsolesce. Cloud computing eliminates this by providing three rental pricing models which include pay-as-you-go, pay-in-advance, and try before you buy. It enables collaboration and community computing by offering a platform for information sharing and mobile workforce. However, Kouyoumjian warns that there are risks involved in cloud computing that worry the architects much (n.p). The issue of security and privacy are top concerns that developers consider. Security breaching may be costly and consequential to all the stakeholders from the vendor, broker, to the end-user. The vulnerability to accessibility of the information from the non-required parties is a concern (Payne 462). For example, security control unit cameras may be hacked and controlled by an outlawed group leaving the organization vulnerable to theft or any form of damage. Therefore, it is to ensure there is maximum protection in data storage, transfer protection, applications, identity management, and passwords protection among others.
Cloud computing is one of the most recent technologies that have been invented. It is among the favorite application due to its benefits; for instance, it allows workers to access their work from a different geographical location. This technology has modified and improved the common GIS that is used in identifying location and mapping. These two platforms are intertwined and offer related services which is beneficial to an organization that is willing to yield positive results. GIS can be used to monitor and offer security to the office and the organization at large. Therefore, GIS and cloud computing are important features in information technology that are integral in management.
Reasons for choosing the articles
Essentially, the peer reviewed articles which are authored by Payne and Sadoun are cited by several authors. This signifies that they are reliable sources and they contain dependable information. Similarly, they are recent publications meaning that they are time conscious. The online web publication by Kouyoumjian is also a reliable source since it is published on ESRI website. ESRI website is an international organization that deals with technological research and development. Lastly, the three articles aided in comparing the evolution of technology from the GIS to cloud computing.
Payne,G. Durand-Lasserve.and C. RakodI: The limits of land titling and home ownership. Environment & Urbanization.Vol 21(2): 443–462, 2009.
Kouyoumjian, Victoria.The new age of cloud computing and GIS. ESRI.Jan. 2010 Web. June 2015
Sadoun, B. and Al-Bayari, O. LBS and GIS Technology Combination and Applications.Proceedings of IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (A