Sample Research Paper on History of Civilizations

Part 1: For each item, fill in the missing term or terms.

  1. The Triennial Act required King Charles I to convene Parliament every three years (Fritze & Robison, 1996, p.526).
  2. Trouser-wearing members of a revolutionary uprising of the French working class were called the Sans-culottes (Turner et al, p.78).
  3. Three laws of planetary motion developed by Johannes Kepler advanced the science of Astronomy (Turner et al, p.33).
  4. In England, Alm houses housed totally destitute people at public expense and resembled the conditions of the First World War (Thirsk & Barley, 1990, p.140).
  5. With the growth of Spanish colonies in the New World, Sugar and Tobacco merchants became important players in the Atlantic slave trade (Turner et al, p.40).
  6. The invention of the Maxim/Machine gun gave Europe an immense military advantage (Turner, p.110).
  7. The Peace of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish Succession in the early 1700s (Turner et al, p.21).
  8. After 1815, the quest for national self-determination posed a grave threat to the Ottoman Empire with its many and potentially dissatisfied nationalities (Turner et al, p.110).
  9. Japanese warlords were called Shogun, while those who were allowed to carry swords were called samurai (Turner et al, p.69).
  10. Import tariffs, or laying high taxes on imported goods, was one way the European government-supported and aided its own economy during industrialization (Turner et al, p.88).

 Part 2: Respond to each of the following with one, but no more than three complete sentences.

  1. What liberal principles were asserted when the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was declared by the National Assembly in August 1789?

The right of man and the citizen was a declaration that asserted the right to individualism that all citizens were entitled to (Davies, 1996, p.713).

  1. What was Francis Bacon’s contribution to the scientific revolution?

Francis Bacon was an English scientist in the fifteenth century who wrote Novum Organum, New method, a book that emphasized the importance of scientific research as a method of problem-solving. Bacon popularized the view that empirical evidence should be gathered by observation and experimentation, which came to be known as empiricism (Turner et al, p.34).

  1. Who was William Cockerill?

William Cockerill was one of the key people of the industrial revolution in Britain who established a factory in Belgium that created machineries such as steam engines and locomotives (Turner et al, p.87).

  1. Throughout the seventeenth century, what was the relationship between Hungary and the Habsburg Empire?

Hungary had been liberated from the Turks but then went under the oppressive rule of the Habsburg Empire where they were treated as one nation (Davies, p.647).

  1. What was the Zollverein?

The Zollverein was the customs union of Germany that was established in eighteen thirty-two to protect German states and support the industrialization process (Turner et al, p.99).

  1. What was the Middle Passage during the transatlantic slave trade?

The middle passage was the part of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade that was between the Americas and Africa, it was the point in the slave trade where most slaves died due to diseases caused by the poor conditions in the ships. (Falola & Warnock, 2007, p.1).

  1. What was a caravel?

A caravel was a ship that was used for long-distance trade. It was developed by the Portuguese and was significantly helpful due to its speed and lightness which made it easy to steer, this was due to its lateen sails (Falola & Warnock, 2007, p.343).

  1. What effect did the boom in the demand for rubber have on Africa’s European colonies? The boom for rubber led to the growth of some African kingdoms such as Benin under King Leopold but also led to increased conflict in the region overland (Turner et al, p.107).
  2. With respect to slavery, how did the Mughal Empire differ from the Safavid and Ottoman Empires? The main difference between the Mughal Empire and the other two empires was that it did not rely on slavery in order to develop unlike the other two and allowed for those of other religions to play an active role in administration (Turner et al, p.56).
  3. What was the role of civil service examinations in Ming China? The examinations that focused on the teachings of Confucius were used to gauge how well the individuals had learned their teachings since in ancient China it was an individual’s education level that determined their social status. China, therefore, had exams for prefecture ranks and state ranks to determine if one was competent enough to take up those posts (Turner et al, p.66).

Part 3: Respond to each item in a complete, concise paragraph.

  1. Briefly discuss the nature and history of the Puritan Protectorate.

The puritan movement started with the intention of purifying the English people of the religious differences between the Catholics and Protestants. When Charles II rose to the throne in 1673, he passed the Test Act to curtail the growth of the Puritan and Catholic factions. The puritans were barred from seeking public office or voting and their freedom of association was greatly curtailed, making them leave England. Therefore, in the Puritan protectorates that were formed in New England, there was significant freedom from discrimination as they themselves had faced it in England (Turner et al, p.27). The Puritan colonies were financially motivated with little intention of spreading any ideology; the main industries were shipbuilding and textile manufacture.

  1. Discuss the ways non-Muslims were treated in the Islamic world.

The Islamic empires did not persecute the non-Muslims in their empires as compared to the treatment of people of other religions in Europe. The Mughal Empire in particular was noted for members of other faiths such as Hinduism being allowed to hold public office and hold their religious celebrations. In the Ottoman Empire Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their faith if they paid poll tax and agreed to respect Islamic rule. The Safavid Empire did however make attempts to convert Christians and Jews to their religion through force. While the empires did tolerate other religions, religious conflicts would occasionally occur resulting in riots and skirmishes within the empires (Turner et al, p.57).

  1. Describe daily life and consumption in eighteenth-century Europe during the Enlightenment and how it affected modern Western life.

The eighteenth century was the era when the industrial revolution took place with the ideology of European superiority beginning to spread. New methods of farming had led to an increase in food production for European states and therefore a lower cost of living. The enlightenment period saw an increase in the use of manufactured goods due to their importance in reducing the cost of labor. With the industrial revolution and dissemination of knowledge, the spread of ideas in human rights as an individual also began to spread across Europe (Turner et al, p.85)

References

Davies, N. (1996). Europe: A history. New York: Oxford.

Falola., T. & Warnock., A. (2007). Encyclopedia of the middle passage. Westport: Greenwood.

Fritze., H. & Robison., B. (1996). Historical Dictionary of Stuart England, 1603-1689.Westport: Greenwood.

Thirsk., J. & Barley, W. (1990). Chapters of The Agrarian History of England and Wales: Volume 5.Cambridge: Cambridge press.

Turner, F.M, Craig, A.M, Graham, W.A., & Ozmet, S.E. The Heritage of World civilizations. (Volume One). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.