Sample Research Paper on Pneumonectomy

Pneumonectomy

Pneumonectomy is an extensive surgical process that involves the removal of one lung or part of the organ. This surgical procedure is often performed to extract growths on the organ or remove a contaminated lung. In some instances, the lung is removed to treat conditions like tuberculosis and traumatic lung injury. However, not all people with lung diseases undergo this surgery. Individuals who qualify for this surgery should be of good health and have a well-functioning second lung capable of bringing in enough oxygen needed in the body and getting rid of carbon IV oxide.

Procedure

During a simple pneumonectomy, commonly referred to as standard pneumonectomy, the healthcare provider removes only the lung itself, either the right or the left lung (Kolbaş, 2019). Before the procedure, the infirm is given composite anesthesia and later an arterial, which is lodged into one of the limbs to deliver prescriptions and fluids, which typically takes three hours.

A surgeon instigates the surgery through the slitting of a substantial cavity where the unhealthy lung is rested. This slit lengthens from a point under the shoulder blade around the patient’s body alongside the arch of ribs at the anterior of the chest. Seldom, a portion of the fifth rib is detached for a more unhindered view or to ease the amputation of the sickly organ. After creating the incision, the diseased lung is inflated (Kolbaş, 2019). When the lung is inflated, its major blood vessels are tied up to avoid bleeding to the chest cavity. After binding the lung’s main blood vessels, the leading bronchus is clumped to prevent the fluid from entering the air passage. After clumping the bronchus, a cut is made through the bronchus, and the diseased lung is removed. When the lung has been removed, the end of the bronchus that was cut is sultured. The surgeon should ascertain that the air is not leaking from the bronchus. Afterward, a transient tube for drainage is sandwiched between the layers of pleura to draw air, blood, and fluid out of the invasive cavity. Lastly, the posterolateral thoracotomy incisions are closed.

Complications

Several complications are associated with pneumonectomy. For instance, pulmonary embolism is a complication that commonly arises after surgery (Campisi, Bertolaccini, Luo, Stella, & Fang, 2020). The condition is characterized by the remaining lung filling with blood clotting (Gonzalez-Rivas et al., 2018). Embolism can cause shortness of breath or breathing difficulties, which results in chest pains. Inductive therapy and excessive electrocoagulation may also contribute to the high frequency of vocal cord palsy after the surgery.

Variations in reactions to anesthesia among patients are a common post pneumonectomy complication. Anesthesia is a medication that sedates a patient during surgery to lose consciousness and manage pain (Gonzalez-Rivas et al., 2018). This medication can result in patients developing whizzing, rash, swelling, and even low blood pressure (Gonzalez-Rivas et al., 2018). Therefore, the medication can result in other medical conditions after the surgery. This risk factor can be corrected using low weight molecular heparin and early interventions of health services.

Pneumonia is a complication that is also associated with pneumonectomy. The condition is caused by subsequent permeability in pulmonary Aldena (Royo-Crespo, Vieira, & Ugalde, 2018). Although necrotizing pneumonic contaminations are rare, they are dangerous ailment substances (Campisi et al., 2020). Patients regularly present with extreme comorbidity and constant issue causing immunodeficiency.

Regardless of the advancement in oncological treatments, which has been accomplished lately, pneumonectomy is a fundamental and once in a while unavoidable technique in the careful treatment of lung disease. The procedure has risky aspects when contrasted with different kinds of pneumonic resections. Subsequently, before performing it, all alternatives for lung-saving methodology, including sleeve resections, ought to be assessed.

Survival

Right pneumonectomy is related to higher mortality even with treatment due to the fundamentally identified expanded danger of bronchopleural fistula on the right. The expanded number of bronchopleural fistulas on the privilege might be affected by extensive resection (Royo-Crespo, Vieira, & Ugalde, 2018). Tending to specialized components that add to an early bronchopleural fistula may decrease the mortality of right pneumonectomy. Patients who undergo this process have an 80 percent survival chance, which is not guaranteed since postoperative clinical complications also exist.

Not all individuals with lung malady undergo pneumonectomy. In case an individual undergoes the process, the other lung should get a move on, as it were, and should work more enthusiastically to acquire enough oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide. Individuals in unexpected frailty or need more lung work, as a rule, cannot have a pneumonectomy. When utilized as a treatment for lung malignancy, pneumonectomy is expected to treat all other related conditions in the body. Therefore, due to the dangers involved in the process, specialists possibly perform pneumonectomy if there is a high possibility of a fix and on the off chance that one will live with one lung after the medical procedure.

References

Campisi, A., Bertolaccini, L., Luo, J., Stella, F., & Fang, W. (2020). Management of medical complications after pneumonectomy. Shanghai Chest, 4, 13-13. doi: 10.21037/shc.2019.10.10

Gonzalez-Rivas, D., Kuo, Y., Wu, C., Delgado, M., Mercedes, d., & Fernandez, R. et al. (2018). Predictive factors of postoperative complications in single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical resection. Medicine, 97(40), e12664. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000012664

Kolbaş, İ. (2019). Videothoracoscopic right pneumonectomy for destroyed lung. Southern Clinics of Istanbul Eurasia. doi: 10.14744/scie.2019.85520

Royo-Crespo, I., Vieira, A., & Ugalde, P. (2018). Right pneumonectomy. ASVIDE, 5, 179-179. doi: 10.21037/asvide.2018.17