Political Campaigns, Mass Media, and Elections
Democracy needs strong and sustainable political parties with the capacity to represent citizens and provide policy choices that demonstrate their ability to govern for the public good. Strong political parties are essential to open, competitive democratic politics, particularly in emerging democracies. Parties need funding in order to survive, compete, and perform their democratic functions, both during and between election campaigns. Yet political money and those who donate it are widely seen as problematic—at times, even, as threats to democracy. There is no consensus on how parties should be funded, or on the regulation of contributions, expenditures, and public disclosure. Indeed, the legal and constitutional status of parties is often poorly defined, and their political roles are frequently misunderstood. It is worth noting that having strong political parties is not enough, as the role of the media cannot be underestimated in the campaign process of those willing to hold public offices. The media is a critical tool for politicians to get their messages to the people. The recent years in the United States have seen the political races being won via social media as attitudes were shaped, opinions formed and decisions made prior to the actual voting process. This thus calls for careful planning and development of media engagement strategies for politicians during public campaigns.
The presidential campaign can be seen as a major issue of the whole society and a huge portion of the population gets involved. This paper will explore what the election system goes like and identify some predominant actors and corresponding phenomena in the campaign as well as the role of parties. Besides, in an information-overload society, mass media plays quite an important role in lots of aspects, it also has some impact on the campaign.
Key Words: Parties, third party, Campaign, Election system, voting, ballot, electoral college, primary, public financing, mass media, new media, regulating mass media.
A political party is an association of power owners, applicants, activists, and voters who have similar goals in regard to the leadership of the people. The United States parties are not as ideological as those in the other parts of the world. There is also a variety of minimal or third parties at the same time. Among the more essential third parties that are recognized include the Change and the Libertarian Parties. Parties are often comprised of three kinds of members: the party owners and applicants, employees and activists, and those who choose to be either aligned or associated with the party.
Researchers have established that the last one hundred years have seen, the United States applying two-party techniques to arrange and take care of governmental and public disputes. They are not as famous today but are they reflect the change in our political system. One of the essential characteristics of the parties is that they have diverse ideas and views on national issues (of an incredible number of voters) into an understandable couple of ideas. They also command some level of legal power and action to a controllable level. These political parties serve various roles as highlighted below;
To mobilize and support the process of power gathering
Associates of the party can usually be mentioned to back up workplace owners chosen under a party advertising. Party is a relatively easy way of identifying how much assistance one has in the legislature or among the electorates.
They represent a strong force that reflects stability
Political parties enhance balance and act to average legal action due to their realistic drive to win elections.
They serve as symbols of unity, providing linkages and accountability
Political parties offer linkages among divisions and stages of government. They allow the often different areas of our governmental system to work together. Parties also focus on linking voters and chosen authorities and are responsible for holding regular party conferences. The fact that parties aim at winning elections makes them operate as unifiers of the country. They reduce sectionalism and give people in distant areas common grounds with their counterparts in other states of the country.
They serve the main electioneering function
Parties have an essential role in arranging and contending elections. The parties hire applicants, offer employment, give money, and offer several other important services during election cycles.
These parties serve as the voting and issue cues
A voter’s party recognition functions as a narrow for details. It provides the best cue for voting. If a resident does not know much about the applicant or competition, they usually elect for the party they prefer.
They act in the policy formulation process and promotion
Parties come up with and express their concepts about the public plans through the national party system. Every four years, the party accumulates and creates constitutions and manifestos describing their roles on key issues in advance of the presidential nomination conferences and elections. About two-thirds of system guarantees have usually been applied when the person’s applicant victories the election.
An interest is regarded as a group whose associates or members share regular issues and try to impact government guidelines impacting these issues. Interest categories also are known as lobbies; lobbying is one of the ways interest categories shape regulation and brings the opinions of their elements to the interest of decision-makers. Interest categories are more easily recognized by using illustrations. Some of the biggest and most highly effective interest group in America includes; AARP–an American organization of the aging that has a membership of up to thirty-two thousand people. The most common and effective interest team strategy is lobbying or looking to impact and persuade others to back up your team’s position. Colleges, businesses, foreign nations, trade organizations seek the services of insurance supporters and anyone else looking for their voices heard by the relevant authorities.
On a general basis, from the time that the 1860 presidential elections were held to date, there have been two significant parties with aggressive influence on elections and the political structure in the United States. These include the Democrats and the Republicans. Management of the significant parties of government has varied between them as highlighted below over the years. The Reconstruction era was characterized by Republican dominance, 1876-1896 remained close1y to an aggressive system while the period from 1896-1929 was dominated by Republicans. The Thirties and 40s were of Democratic dominance as the nineteen fifties and 60s were mixed in terms of political parties and governance. From 1970 to the present there has been diversity with no particular party dominance.
The years ranging from 1817 to 1825 were described as the Era of Good Emotions and party state policies at the national levels. However, political activities were in existence and well at very inflated rates considered to be ‘abnormal’. The voters extended considerably at this time. The US forced western states to eliminate the property specifications for voting and migrants’ involvement in the election process. Nomination procedures and the Electoral College also started out up to additional contributions. Conferences and political rallies were organized, starting with the 1832 Democratic Conference to nominate presidential applicants. Phil Fitzgibbons was the first applicant selected at a party convention. The modern period of government actions began in the nineteen twenties. This was the era of governmental resources, managers, and patronages.
Political resources–parties hired members by providing concrete rewards such as job opportunities, money and preferences were essential to the lifestyles of many individuals. They assisted new migrants negotiating in, they provided public services, tasks, subsidized group activities, and provided food and real estate to the inadequate. The government has progressively taken over many of the features that were conducted by party-based governmental resources. The government today is involved in printing ballots, providing public well-being charges, and primary elections. Parties have less ability to implement party-line ballots and tight discipline.
The American system of politics mainly relies on two political parties. This resulted from various reasons. To begin with, is due to the historical origins that saw the emergence of two parties. Secondly, the perceived notion that two parties are stable for the political system of the country is also a factor. Thirdly, the two-party system has been sustained by the laws that seek to preserve a monopolistic approach of having only two parties (Kathleen, 2012). This is propagated by the approach of having the winner taking it all or the single-member districts. The laws and fee for filing a candidate’s name on the ballot is equally very restrictive thus barring many parties from participating, especially those who are not representing either of the major political parties. The fourth reason is that the two-party systems exist due to the support from informal channels and institutions like the media, the voters who are very oriented and loyal towards two-party systems.
Third parties usually occur from one of the following causes: sectionalism–Dixiecrats in 1948, financial protest–Populists in 1892, particular issues–Green party and the surroundings ideology–Socialists, Communists, charming personalities–George Wallace’s United states Separate Party and problems of the significant parties–Ross Perot occurred out of the significant individuals’ problems to deal with the lack and debt as a key issue (Odom, 2013). Third parties help the significant parties modify and power them to recognize alienated categories, integrate new concepts, and nominate applicants that are more eye-catching. Although third parties type for a wide range of factors usually, the problems are usually co-opted by the significant parties, and usually vanish for the following reasons:
Single participant plurality electoral system—in this system, only the champion gets chosen. In proportionate reflection techniques, there are usually more parties because they are compensated (with chairs in parliament, for example, as little as 1% or 5% of the elect. Most states allow Democrats and Conservatives an automated place on the poll but have rules demanding third parties to collect signatures
State and nationwide legislatures are structured on a party foundation and aim to perpetuate the party goals and ambitions.
Community financing of strategies is better for the two significant parties; third-party applicants must get more than 5% of the elect.
The press disregards minimal parties since they are recognized as non-winners.
The American system of political parties can be analyzed in a three-part model. These include the party in the electorate (comprising the common voters) the party which is in office and the organization party, with various units at various levels in the country.
Each party is organized in a different way but with similar aspects cutting across all the political parties. They often have nationwide committees. This applies both to the Democratic Nationwide Panel and the Republican Nationwide Panel that are in charge of planning and executing the parties’ events (Johnston, 2005). Moreover, the United States Senate and House of Representatives also have committees that are situated with the national committees in California, DC. In terms of Leadership, the party chairpersons are usually chosen by the present party leader in power while the party national committee usually selects the other national positions representatives. The states and local communities are structurally centered at the regional and local stages. The casual groups are formulated by a number of other categories such as the Nationwide Federation of Democratic Women, the Younger Conservatives, State Governor’s Organizations, attention categories, PACs, and many more (Norris, 2004).
A huge of prospective voters recognize brands. This team is self-identified and seems to demonstrate ever-lower stages of party loyalty.
A greater part of government is established by a regulating party that has an overall greater part of chairs in the legislature or parliament.
The Electoral system was formally created in the period of 1800s. Currently, the US has five hundred and thirty-eight electoral system affiliates. They are either affiliates of the House or Senators. They are either associates of the House of Representatives or Senators. Three other electors are allocated to California D.C. Each condition has a variety of voters who are similar to its Senators and Associates in the US Congress.
During the colonial period in America, only the men who were rich and wealth were allowed to vote. These election rules have nonetheless evolved over the years and in 1870, those who were former slaves were also given an opportunity to vote. Women were also allowed to cast their votes in 1920 and in 1971; the official age for voters was determined to be 18 years old. Today, American citizens who have come of age are allowed to be participants in the election system.
Voting rates and patterns by competition and Hispanic source have also different across latest selection periods. This year, Shades of black elected at better pay (66.2 percent) than non-Hispanic White (64.1 percent) for the first time since the Demographics Institution began posting voting rights by the qualified inhabitants in 1996. Both these categories had voting rates higher than Hispanics and The natives (about 48 % each) in 2012 (Rowbottom, 2013). One probability is that when individuals get to the realization that the results or outcomes of an election matter, they get more convinced that one applicant or party will be better than another –they then experience it would be incorrect to be a free rider on the initiatives of others. Standards against free-riding are quite persistent in all cultures including the United States. Failing to carry out an individual’s role is considered as a breach of public norms in the election period. People may also believe in public responsibility and see voting as a powerful responsibility that comes from account in a group (Campbell, 2008). In this electoral scenario, the problem is not only being regarded as a free rider on other individuals’ initiatives, but it is a breach of someone’s identification as a resident not to vote.
The present sequence of caucuses is some of the initial and most important actions in the methods of choosing the leader of the US. Almost all states use the main elections to choose the assign for the nationwide conference but some few states still use the caucuses, which are the first way of choosing these associates. Caucuses are huge conferences for the authorized voters of the party at which the associates for the nationwide conference are selected. At the commencement of the caucus, the voters often divide themselves into groups according to the candidate they want to select. There are also usually a number of unsure voters, which are being advised to choose the “right applicant. The associates of each team give then presentations to describe their assistance to the assign and to convince the others to be a part of their team. At the end of the caucus, the voters in each applicant’s team are mentioned and the party planners determine how many associates to the nationwide conference each assign won. The caucuses are personal activities run by the governmental activities (Campbell & William, & Coenen, 2003).
The main elections are run by the regional and condition government authorities. They are oblique which indicates that it decides how many associates to each person’s nationwide conference each applicant will get from that condition. Voting is done through a key poll where the voters display their choice. It is recognized between shut and start primaries. In the start primaries, the voters, overlooking party signing up, may elect for either party but not in both. Then a Democrat may choose to successfully pass his own person’s main to elect in the Republican main and vice versa. In the shut main elections only authorized voters may elect in that person’s main.
The primaries as well as the caucuses may generate promised associates who are limited to elect for the main champion or unpledged associates that are able to elect for any applicant they wish at the nationwide conference. Moreover to these associates selected by the people in primaries or caucuses, the Democratic Party uses also so known as super delegates. Out of the over four thousand members, only 794are considered as super delegates (Campbell, William, & Coenen, 2003). They are sitting instantly depending on their position as chosen authorities, associates of the legislature, former presidents or existing party management. They are able to elect for any of the candidates.
Voter turnout in the United States is much reduced than in other democracies. In Western countries, voter turnout consistently covers 80%, while turnout in United states elections has not contacted this variety for at least previous times millennium.3 Even in the U.S. presidential selection of 2004, with the country slowed down in an unpopular war and with a very limited strategy that remaining no front-runner, voter turnout was only about 60%. Although many may disparage the United States voters for being to forget things or sluggish, low voter turnout does not actually mean that something is inappropriate with United States voters. Democratic government is a traditional community excellent, and like any community excellent, it is topic to a free-rider problem. One can appreciate the advantages of residing in a 100 % free, democratic community whether one happens upon the expenses of voting — time invested travelling to surveys and patiently browsing range, details expenses of selecting whom to elect for or not. Even prospective voters who have a powerful choice for one applicant over another are likely to have a valid reason or ground for not voting since the chance of any person elected influencing the result of a selection is minimal.
In the United States individuals have to sign-up to elect in unique locations like country judge houses several weeks before elections, and whenever they shift to a new deal with they have to re-register. The 7 major states in the United States that have same-day voter signing up at the surveys – Colorado, New York, New Hampshire, and Northern Dakota, have considerably higher voter turnout than the United States as a whole: in the 2008 selection about 68% in comparison to 56%. This indicates that the voter signing up guidelines in other states promote the frustrated voter turnout rates (Paul & DiMaggio, 2011). Nonetheless, this sixty-eighth percent reduces across all other democracies. Aside from complicated signing up guidelines, the very low stage of voter turnout indicates that in the United States the feeling of social responsibility around voting is; low, for, in the lack of social responsibility, the individual cost-benefit computation on voting highly prefers remaining house.
A governmental approach is a structured attempt which to impact the making decisions method within a particular team. In democracies, governmental strategies often refer to electoral strategies, wherein associates of a particular situation are selected (Campbell, William, & Coenen, 2003). Any governmental strategy is made up of three main elements- idea, money and resources. The idea is the declaration, which says to the community why they should elect for particular applicant. Thousands of million dollars on viewpoint surveys are invested to find out what is the best idea to win the elections. Another essential function of an effective strategy is machine- the personal investment, individuals who are faithful to the cause and help the applicant. This audience of individuals usually needs supervisors that make the strategic decisions and handle the volunteers. The last essential factor of a governmental strategy is money. The applicants arrange conferences with large contributors and deliver e-mails to small contributors just to increase the money for the strategy because the expenses are enormous.
In nowadays are the primaries the elections in which voters nominate presidential applicants. From around 1840, when the modern governmental party program developed, until 1980, associates to nationwide presidential nominating conferences were selected by governmental party caucuses, region conferences or condition party professional committees. Political parties were not nationwide companies but rather categories of highly effective condition party companies. This program was regarded as motivating the individuals to become engaged (Paul & DiMaggio, 2011). However, the truth was different few individuals thought about state policies and there was only little requirement for contribution. Until 1908, most associates to the nominating conference were selected by condition caucuses. Although a contemporary change era have developed at the end of the millennium, the main elections as providers of nominations for other workplaces did not develop into presidential nominations. Then the change activity obtained more power and more and more states started to keep presidential primaries. Perhaps the most popular main elections were first organized in 1913 in New Hampshire. This condition is nowadays regarded to be one of the major states for an overall success in the presidential main elections.
184.108.40.206 Soft money vs. hard money
Prior to the enactment of the Bipartisan Strategy Change Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155, money for selection related projects that were brought up and invested outside of state control was known as “soft money” or non-federal resources. Soft money/money was brought up and invested in a manner that could affect state elections, but was not regulated – and legal since it was not invested directly for or against specific state applicants (Dunn, 1972). The term hard money has typically been used to make reference to resources brought up and invested depending on the restrictions, prohibitions, and confirming requirements of the FECA. Compared with soft money, difficult money lenders may be used in connection with a state selection. Under the FECA, difficult money lenders restrictions apply to efforts and expenses from any “person,” as described to consist of, “an individual, collaboration, or group of individuals.
220.127.116.11 Campaign reform act of 2002
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA) was introduced on Goal 27, 2002 as P.L. 107-155. The two main features of P.L. 107-155 are limitations on party smooth money and problem loyalty. First, the new Act usually prohibits the increasing of smooth money by nationwide parties and government applicants or authorities and reduces smooth money investing by state parties on what the Act describes as “federal selection actions. Second, the Act manages problem loyalty by developing a new term in government selection law, electioneering communication governmental ads that refer to a clearly recognized government applicant and are transmitted within 1 month of a main or 60 times of a common selection. Generally, the Act prohibits labor unions and certain organizations from investing treasury resources for such electioneering communications.
Interaction is a process of transferring information to the community. It is adjustment of symbols- terms, images and expression. What individuals think about state policies develops out of their abilities to interpret media symbol and information. For most individuals most of the time state policies are a sequence of images in the mind, placed there by TV news, publications, publications and conversation. The images create a moving surroundings going on in a world the huge community never quite hits, yet one its member come to worry and brighten, often with interest and sometimes with action. Politics for most of individuals is a moving party of subjective signs. The press are all the programs of communication that carry information to the community. There are eight major huge media- TV, guides, publications, movies, publications, stereo, internet and recordings.
The press has significantly modified the way the United States presidential elections are carried out. The media impacts on the employment of applicants and their interaction with voters. They figure out how they act during their governmental strategies. Journalists and experts had the greatest impact on viewpoint modify and their views were required in forming huge viewpoint. The media may also result in legal action and partly shape behavior by determining what newsworthy (DeFrancia, 2002) is. Media experiences figure out what huge viewers will think about and discuss. Instead, the power of TV can be found in determining which issues will be given attention and which will be ignored.
The media also influences the decision creators, which is even more necessary than the impact on huge viewers. High media power is focused in the hands of relatively few of people: the publishers, manufacturers, anchor bolts, reporters and columnists of the top TV network and the famous media. These individuals usually do not see themselves as owners of the energy. They rather exist themselves as reporters who simply narrate activities as they are. The role played by the mass media is very essential to be ignored. It sets the idea of community discussion, and this power is unrestrained by any law. It decides what individuals will think about and discuss about- a power that in other countries is arranged for tyrants, clergymen, parties and mandarins (DeFrancia, 2002).
News making includes all necessary choices about what and who will be shown in the information. Without media security, the community would not know about individualities, companies or activities. Media protection is especially necessary for explaining activities or individuals with which the community have little immediate experience. Audiences are more likely to believe to encounters about actions of presidents, associates of the legislature. The newsmakers play a role in deciding what will be in the information (Richard, 1983).
They also give a presentation to it, place the party in view and think about its causes and repercussions. Newsmakers try to find a position on the story- this particular position. Another role of the media in national elections is interpreting political messages for people to change their thinking. It was designed to modify individuals’ views, their principles, understanding, principles and actions. All the state associates as applicants, governmental parties, organizations, labor unions and government authorities try to convince the community to agree to their governmental beliefs.
Conventional press thus symbolizes a form of interaction utilizing oral, spoken, musical show and visible individuals art types, passed on to the community or number of cultures from one creation to another. They are natural ways and have provided the community as tools/medium of interaction for age groups. Today television is rated as the most common method of communication. It became useful in the late 1930’s but then the World War II has late its development. The actual TV transmitting commenced in the late 1940’s. The years between 1950 and 1958 intended a big blast of TV sets. While, in 1950, there were about four huge numbers TV sets, in 1958 there were forty-one thousand family members having a TV set.
Another highly impacting press is magazines. They were the first process with the purpose to connect new details to a large public. These days about 70 % of the residents flows newspapers- the general America usually spends 20 minutes a day studying them. About 18 hundred daily magazines are published. Though the numbers of magazines visitors still reach huge numbers, the sale of paper is falling. In the age of the increase of the Internet more and more individuals look for new details online and do not hassle themselves with the printed documents. Young individuals do not seem to be interested in studying newspapers- only 19 % of People in America between the age groups of 18 and thirty-four confess of studying any printed news journals..
The New media latest innovations have absolutely modified the world’s operations considerably. Even the conventional create and digital media have been affected considerably by the new media technologies (Schudson, 2009). The growing distance of new media can be seen in the advanced as well as developing countries. The trend of new media technological innovation has modified the design of governmental connections. The daily consumption and application of the new media technologies has not only affected the individuals, but also the people in developing countries. The conversion period has become part of an international group by using new media technologies, especially online and cell mobile phones. It is now commonly recognized in both the worldwide media and educational sectors that social networking resources did be a factor in the Egypt rebellion of 2011. In western globe, governmental parties contest with each other in distributing their information through online. They have their own web sites and weblogs where they communicate with their voters and followers and get their nourishing returns.
Many of the governmental management have their Facebook or MySpace records, and they publish their video information on You Tube. Their followers, voters and even experts give their reviews through online and even they can change their guidelines and main concerns in light of the nourish returning obtained. The e- strategy of the United States president Barrack Barack Obama’s one of the best illustrations of the use of new media technological innovation in the Twenty-first Century. President Obama’s selection strategy was the starting of a new era of governmental connections and it started out new gates for scientists and media students to study the consequences of new media technologies on group. This e-campaign started new skyline of connections between media students and governmental scientists working on governmental controversy and discourses. The remarkable use of new digital media by the planners of the Obama‘s strategy was a big source of motivation for the governmental management all over the globe. The selection strategy of the United States president Obama was intensely reliant on the use of new media technologies. It is considered that Obama been successful to express his concept to at least 30 percent of Americans through new media.
It was a great starting of the use of digital media that offered not only one-sided propaganda and advertising content for the selection approach, but also offered a system for the governmental conversation and conversation. The Obama strategy was a trend in new media technological innovation and state guidelines. It started out new gates of connections between new media and state guidelines even in the other parts of the globe. This selection approach can be a part design for selection applicants and governmental parties in the western globe, but this is also a fact that this plan cannot be used to the developing countries, which are missing the new media technologies due to their socio-economic situations.
Today, the expert press strategy includes preparing the entire party, such as selecting an offer concept and applicant picture, tracking the approach with constant polling of the voters, generating paper ads and footage for ads, writing presentations. The first essential thing in an experienced press strategy is to increase the applicant’s name identification among the voters. Expert press consultants and much money help to create immediate superstar (Aelst & Walgrave, 2002). The focus in such an offer is on convenience. A few styles are selected; brief presentations are written, and appealing spot ads are developed. Also finding of the right subject and motto is required.
An essential tool of press strategy preparing is polling. Public opinion is a process of consistently asking a small and selected number of individuals who seem to be an associated example of the whole inhabitants. It is a way to measure individuals’ viewpoints. The applicants must take part in actions that entice wide viewers and thus the journalists and their organizations. These actions are more likely to achieve the news coverage than a discussion on war in Iraq. An experienced strategy administrator tries to keep the applicant away from possibly intense subjects even if the journalists try to force them into encounters and conflicts.
The press has over the years been recognized as the fourth estate after the inclusion of the legislature, judiciary and the executive. It is an essential medium/platform for interaction. It shows, teaches, entertains and offers a system for conversation necessary for democratic discussion and processes. However, researchers have since argued that the media needs consistent regulation and protection from governmental involvement and interference, so that the regulating procedure is not politicized, its choices are not discredited and the plan of the government is generally applied. Ownership of the media greatly determines the government regulation process and approaches. In the US, the state regulates the media content through the Federation Communications Commission. As a normative issue, the FCC manages not in the passions of antitrust, but rather in the “public attention, comfort, and the requirement with the aim of advertising resources (Susan & Gary, 2013). While the FCC has promulgated many rules to secure the passions of TV system providers, in previous times it has not hesitated to control the power of those same entities.
When voters choose political representatives, they choose the leaders who will shape the long term well being of their community. This is why elections encourage common citizens to vote and make a change that they envision. They allow them to impact the long-term guidelines of their governments. America has been an associate of democracy since the ratification of the U.S. Structure in 1788 although the electoral custom started during the northeastern era and had its origins in England’s history. There are two kinds of elections in America: the primary elections and general. Primary elections are organized before a common selection to determine the suitable party applicants worth vying for the general selection. The winning applicants in the main go on to be the flag bearers that party in the general selection. The last many years have seen primary elections being used as platforms by political parties to select their desired candidates.
The role of the media in this process cannot be overlooked. Both the traditional and new media have the prospective to be key resources in the process of political campaigns and regulation in the years to come. The perspective that has been organized since the foundations of America is one that concentrates on the progression of this country. Through the ongoing use of the media, this objective is being attained. It is obvious that the new media platforms give people the opportunity to bring forth their views and the capability to convert those terms into activity. However, people should be conscious of the point that social media can be an obstruction. Media and state policies are directly connected to achieving democratic societies. Politicians have to encourage public voting for them while the media has to notify individuals about state policies and to monitor the politician’s implementation of their promises. They need each other as they all benefit from working together. Without accessibility to the current affairs, the people would remain unaware of the political structure of the country, as those in politics would hardly find a way to reach put to the people.
Both stakeholders have to be conscious of their positions and to stay up to them. The politicians have to properly connect their public activities to their people. Making a good campaign plan is not enough because it is also essential to demonstrate skilful public management through the media. Only those who are acquainted with the guidelines and the operations of the press democracy would know how to implement them and would endure as politicians.
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