Sample Research Paper on Racial Discrimination in America

Part I: Racial Discrimination in America

Race is a very important social issue globally because many people use racial variations to discriminate against other people. The currently observed racism in America originated around the 1400s during the onset of the colonialism era. When the European white settlers began colonizing the Americans, they adopted the assumption that their race was superior to the others, and they held the duty to civilize them. Racial discrimination has been an issue of concern in the US since the colonial era. Racial politics also remains a major phenomenon in the social history of the US. It continues to reflect on the socio-economic inequality and has moved to a high-tech such as symbolic racism. In places of employment, education, housing, and governance, racial classification continue to play significant roles. The main interest of carrying out the study of racial discrimination in the United States is to find out the situation of racism in today’s United States society, and if it has gotten any better since the colonial error. The study intends to use incredible articles and journals from US-based writers, people who have shared their experience of racism in the US, and book resources that touch on the issues of racism in the US to help in the development of ideas and understanding of this topic as a social aspect of the American society. The topic explores the history of American racial discrimination, socio-economic and political consequences (Quillian 203)

Part II: Racism against Different Racial Groups in America

Racism is can be described as a systematic practice of denying an individual or group of people access to rights, resources, or representation based on differences in race. Racism goes to the extent of institutional racism, where discrimination involves institutions and virtually affects several aspects of society. Documentary records reveal that various racial units have co-existed harmoniously through history. The main races existing in the United States today include the Native Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, European Americans, Latin Americans, Middle Easterners, Asians, and other immigrant groups like the Irish people, Poles, Italians, and Jews. Access to U.S citizenship was a restriction enforced by the 1790 Naturalization Act, which illegalized naturalization to non-white people. Today, many do not remember the institutionalized prejudice that was laid against the whites who followed Roman Catholics from countries that include Germany, Ireland, France, and Italy. Other exclusive efforts include the Chinese Exclusion Act (CEA) of 1882 and the National Origins Act (NOA) of 1924. The National Origins Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at restricting Russians and Southern Europeans from entering the United States (Quillian 245).

Native Americans

Many millions of American natives habituated in the United States before the colonial era. A long sequence of massacres, wars, food rights, population displacements, and forced treaties had to occur in an attempt to obtain North America to be part of the United States territory. Big portions of land were taken and countless hardships were imposed. The ideologies behind the justification of the context involved Native American stereotypes as ‘Indian savages’ and the doctrine of the manifest destiny of quasi-religious which was linked to the U.S divine blessing conquest of lands from the pacific to the Atlantic Seaboard (Danielson 287).

Many Native Americans who survived after the incorporation of territories into the U.S faced relegation to reserved areas that constituted only 4% of the total U.S territory. The treaties that were signed violated many thousands, including enforcement of a residential school system, which was meant to reeducate them into the cultural values and socio-economic dynamics of the white settler. Today, the Native Americans are still highly influenced by the modern institutionalized form of racism. The reports by the World Watch Institute noted that about 317 reservations are under the threat of environmental hazards (Eltis 1412). Even though there has been a legal grant of formal equality, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and the American Indians are still among the most socio-economically disadvantaged communities in the U.S, suffering from high incidences of alcohol abuse and suicide (Eltis 1417).

Black Americans

Slavery in the U.S can be traced to the period when the English colonialists settled in Virginia until the time when the 1865 thirteenth amendment to the U.S constitution was made. Court rulings by the eighteenth century later clarified that slavery in the American version mainly applied to Black Africans and occasionally extend to Native Americans. This move saw many African Americans face legal discrimination and hardened institutionalized racism. Discriminatory legislation kept them disenfranchised, especially in the south. The migration of millions of African Americans just after World War I from the southern to the Northern states had more implications for racism with racial tensions being experienced in the North  (Quillian 321).

During the 20th century, African American activists and politicians demanded their civil rights through protests. This is when Martin Luther King, a pastor, and activist, came to be known as the catalyst for several non-violent protests in the U.S. in the 1960s. This led to the establishment of the the1964 American Civil Rights Act, which prohibited discrimination in employment, government, and public facilities. The act illegalized racial segregation in housing, hiring, or institutions. Even though substantial gains have been achieved in the subsequent decades through public employment and middle-class advancement, education and black poverty are still issues of concern within the African American communities Latin Americans (Hispanic or Latino) (Eltis 1418).

The Latin Americans were seen as a monolithic community, who originated from several ethnic backgrounds. They are normally portrayed as violent, lazy, hypersexual, and passionate. The recent Hispanic immigration to areas that previously had few immigrants of Hispanic origin sparked anti-Latino sentiments. This has generated a feeling that the Anglo-American society is being taken over by the American Latinos, who occupy the Southwestern parts of the United State (David et al 234).

Mexicans in the Southwestern territory were discriminated against during the Mexican-American War between1846-1848. The U.S government established a Mexican Repatriation program that saw Mexican immigrants return back to Mexico against their will. The Zoot Suit Riots was the outcome of Mexican-American racial violence. Public institutions, homeowners,, and businesses developed policies to intentionally exclude Mexican –Americans (Eltis 1419).

The middle Easterners, Muslims and South Asians

Middle Easterners and South Asian people occupied a historically racial status in the U.S.  Many Arab Americans feel that they are not perceived as white people by American society. Tensions between the Arab world and the U.S government have significantly impacted racism and violence, especially after the 2001 American attack. They are stereotypically viewed as terrorists and threats by the rest of Western nations. Several attacks based on ethnicity and religion have been made against them, and those who are mistakenly identified with them, become collateral victims. Even the Middle Easterners who find their way to the U.S. military often face racism from their fellow soldiers (Quillian 300).

Muslim Americans experience political, cultural, and religious segregation. The demonization of the Middle Easterners resulted in hatred of Iranians and Arabs in the United States (David et al 345).

Asian Americans

Numerous immigration laws were imposed on Asian resident immigrants, including ethnic Chinese. They were banned from entering the U.S. The non-whites were never allowed to testify against the whites, whereas the Chinese were subjected to hard labor (Eltis 1421). Current American immigration laws are unfavorable to all Asian countries since they are Race origin-based (Eltis 1422).

Part III: Racial Coding

Racial coding of concepts such as welfare and crime, usually influence global political waves. It is implicit and incorporates imagery to suggest racial discrimination and racial language. From a historical point of view, racism has been always beneath the politics of the U.S . President Lyndon Johnson, who helped the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, realized Dr. Martin Luther King’s dream. Even Obama’s campaign should owe its survival to this movement. President Obama has positioned his political career to the African American generation of politicians, who originated from the Black power movements. He is viewed as being a post-racial politician (Danielson 297).

For the last over 40 years, since Martin Luther King was assassinated, to today’s Obama legacy, the relationship between politics, class, and race has undergone a massive transformation. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 significantly marked a major transition phase from the civil rights movement to a Black Power volt in the cities of the United States. However, the fact remains that no political or activist of African American background can completely ignore the 500-year racism, slavery, and oppression (Eltis 1422).

During the early 20th century, it was clear that African-related blood had no business in America’s political platform. This coordinated program to undermine ethnic and racial minority voters has become consequential. Hostile officials deploy corruption and fraud languages to justify their motives as did their counterparts to disenfranchise black voters. Political racism can never fail to exist, with its repercussions, in both subtle and explicit guises (Danielson 334).

Economic discrimination is partly related to racism, ethnicity, religion and other causes are other forms of discrimination. According to an Economic Policy Institute based in Washington, D.C., close to half of America’s black population have their homes in segregated neighborhoods, which are characterized by high levels of poverty (David et al 544).

A report by EPI also noted that there was little change in poverty levels for Black people in America since 1963. Black poverty remains unchanged one hundred years later, after the Jewish economic racism and driving force of lending institutions. Economic racism, which acts as a tool of capitalism, manifests within a society of lower-income individuals like the situation with African American people. The current trend is to hire them in part-time jobs (Danielson 300).

It is evident from the findings that Racism is not an issue of the past in the US. It still forms part of the American society’s image and everyday stories. Further studies can be done on the efforts that have been put in place to fight against racism in American society.

Works Cited

Danielson, Chris. The Color of Politics: Racism in the American Political Arena Today. ABC-CLIO, 2013,  Pp. 1-345

David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, Lawrence Bobo. Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , (2000)  Pp. 1-678

Eltis, David. “Universal Periodic Review Joint Reports: United States of America. .” The American Historical Review 98 (5) (2013): 1402–1422.

Quillian, Lincoln. “Annual Review of Sociology 32 (1.” New Approaches to Understanding Racial Prejudice and Discrimination (2008): 299–328.