Sample Research Paper on Racial discrimination in America

Racial discrimination remains an important part of American history. The constitution guarantees equal protection against any form of racial discrimination. For many decades, it has been known that discrimination in terms of race has always targeted minorities. To ensure protection against minorities, different legislations ensure that equal opportunities are available to all persons despite racial differences. Employment is one of the areas that require careful consideration of race. However, Ricci v. DeStefano, 557 U.S. 557 (2009) gives a different twist on this case. This seems to be a reverse case of racial discrimination; where eighteen firefighters, seventeen whites and one Hispanic, are denied promotion because blacks failed to score pass mark in the test (D’Aquila, 2010). The officials who invalidated the results mentioned disproportionate exclusion of blacks as the main reason for denying promotion, something that led to another lawsuit. This case brings out the need to approach issues of racial discrimination by conclusively at all available legislations in order not to disadvantage a group or individuals.

On the same note, pay differences between male and female workers also raises certain ethical questions among scholars. Many reasons have been proposed to be responsible for pay differences between the two genders. Gender discrimination is mentioned as the main reason. In general, women are paid less in comparison to men, even on equal job group or specification. However, racial discrimination is seen as another serious problem that must be dealt. This comes from the fact that women from racial minorities earn even lesser compared to racial majority counterparts. Despite of this, Biggs (2010) finds out that male-female pay gap is a reality; however, gender discrimination should not be blamed for the problem. One can easily note that more women have risen to higher positions in bigger companies, raising their pay prospects. In spite of this, more needs to be done to ensure that pay gap between male and female is eliminated.


Biggs, A. (2010, October 18). Sex, workers: gender discrimination does not explain the male-

female pay gap. National Review 62(19), 24.

D’Aquila, B. (2010). A management employment lawyer’s perspective on Ricci v. DeStefano.

ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 25(2), 213-225.