Sample Research Paper on Reproductive Control

Introduction

The women who experience sexual violence are vulnerable to poor reproductive health in comparison to those women who are not abused. The rates of violence experienced by women across the globe, the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals, have maintained a high level over the years. Most women do not have the ability to make independent decisions in seeking to control their reproductive health. The male interference and control causes both physical and mental harm to the vulnerable women in society. In the United States (As well as other developed countries), Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are at an alarming high and leads to either contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (due to failure to use contraceptives) or unwanted pregnancies. These conditions consequently lead to decisions to repeated abortions, miscarriages and poor development of the fetus (More et al, 2010).

Control of female reproductive organs is evident in both violent and non-violent relationships. This information is often available from women who attend antenatal care. Other pregnant women seek counseling to help them learns either to cope or find safety as others seek reproductive health care services from the Gynecologist. This paper seeks to reveal the impact of reproductive control across various regions on the globe.

Background

Women’s lack of control of their reproductive organs is evident in most cultural groups around the world with the exceptions of civilized societies especially among the developed countries and urbanized regions of the world. The pregnancy makes the women in already abusive relationships more vulnerable to violence (Morre et al, 2014). Moreover, the study reveals, women with unintended pregnancies carry a greater risk of violence in their relationships than those with consented pregnancies. This risk of violence and negative attitude is attributed to the abusive partner’s unconscious jealous to the unborn baby (Yuan, 2014).

Surrounded with philosophers, poets, and authors who believed in nurturing to maximize a child’s potential in life, Mary grew up under strict guidance based on verified notions and theories of life. She also enjoyed the freedom and exposure to knowledge and useful information that led to her disregard in unreasonable social systems (Bloom, 2013).

Statement of Problem

Financial worries increase the chances of male domination and abusive habits towards their spouses. This is common in young inexperienced couples in marriage who, when undergoing a financial crisis, develop unintended weird habits towards their partners under frustrations (Zimmerman, 2009).

Methodology

The World Health Organization reports of reproductive control around the world were appropriate in obtaining the accurate data of its impact worldwide. The reports covered respondents from North America, Africa, some parts of Asia and Europe. Using Questionnaires on pregnant women attending antenatal health care generated reliable data in various hospitals. The respondents included mothers of various age groups visiting the hospital. Some other mothers preferred personal interviews.

During trafficking, for examples, the abused women are subjected to imprisonment by restricting their movements. They also experience threats, physical assaults, as well as rape. Of the women who were trafficked, 95% of the respondents in the study conducted in Europe (Zimmerman et al, 2009), reported physical and sexual violence. At least 75% were physically hurt while another 77% reported restriction to movement (Zimmerman et al, 2009). Only 30% of the respondents in this study reported threats directed at either them or their family members.

It is evident that most (90%) of women trafficked were coerced by threats to engage in sex with the captors. A fraction of the women had no prior experience in sex (they were virgins) and were seriously hurt in the process. The inhuman actions by the traffickers are evident in the manner in which they treat the women on transit.

Another reason men abuse woman during their pregnancy period is attributed to the unplanned natural competition that arises between the potential father and unborn baby. Although this issue is not common among non-violent couples, it is enhanced and magnified in violent relationships. The male partner seeks to influence the pregnant woman to resolve the pregnancy in way that he has not figured out or planned. This causes misunderstandings and misconception that increase conflicts in a marriage. These conflicts are often based on minor and unreasonable causes that are simply avoidable (Zimmerman, 2009).

With the masculine advantage, the men coerce the weak, delicate pregnant women with forced labor (such as excessive hard work) in domestic responsibilities apart from controlling their sexual and intimate experiences to ensure and mandate their role in childbirth and rearing. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined Internet Partner Violence (IPV) as the emotional (including insults, intimidation and threatening), sexual (forced intercourse either out of fear or a humiliating act) physical (including slaps, pushing, chocking, threatening using a weapon, hitting, burned or kicking especially on the abdomen during the pregnancy period) and the control (movement restrictions, isolation and monitoring) (Morre et al, 2010). Moreover, the study reveals, the WHO defined poor reproductive health as unwanted pregnancies, complications in pregnancies and unsafe abortion in 2006.

During trafficking, for examples, the abused women are subjected to imprisonment by restricting their movements. They also experience threats, physical assaults, as well as rape. Of the women who were trafficked, 95% of the respondents in the study conducted in Europe (Zimmerman et al, 2009), reported physical and sexual violence. At least 75% were physically hurt while another 77% reported restriction to movement (Shoen, 2011). Only 30% of the respondents in this study reported threats directed at either them or their family members.

According to the study conducted in Europe (Zimmerman et. al, 2009) designed to assess the psychological reactions on the women’s mental conditions after the experience of trafficking, the team found evidence of trauma, depression and post-traumatic disorder in the victims. These mental conditions affected the victims’ daily tasks in their lives and career completely shuttering their performance at both work and school (Schoen, 2011). For instance, the memory of the traumatic ordeals among these women affects their relationships with other men as they associate them with the oppressors.

Mary Shelley’s fear of childbirth

Mary Shelly’s greatest fears included the thought that her baby would be born deformed. She wondered if she would accept and love it or longed for its death due to the shame it would bring to her.  She wondered why and how she would wish the death of her baby and worried at the thought of the uncertainty of raising a healthy and comfortable baby. With experience, she feared that she would not provide sufficiently for the needs of the child, ensure it would be normal, and grow comfortably to adulthood. She feared it would die but did not want to imagine her feelings to experience the death of her baby. She also feared that the child could kill her during the childbirth process and expressed these fears in successful parenting (Bloom, 2013).

Conclusion

Reproductive control is evident in relationships when the male partners force their intentions without considering the views of the women. The abusive men use threats and intimidation tactics to to coerce the women into their reproductive demands regardless of an existence of a conflict of interest. This study sought to reveal the impact of reproductive control to women around the world.

Proposal

Saving the women from reproductive control

The enhancement of laws against sexual abuse

The offenders of the law involved in sexual abuse and sex trafficking, are in some countries, served with a light penalty that does not make them regret their deeds and stop the urge to indulge in the evil practices again. Strict laws enable people to refrain from propagating crimes associated with the laws for fear of incrimination and long jail terms. The governments should dedicate amendments to the constitution that will enhance the penalties for sexual harassment especially among women to ensure an effective result in reducing abuse of the women’s independence in their reproductive health control. The culprits can serve as a lesson for anyone else intending to engage in reproductive control of women (whether intentionally or not).

Extensive research

There are some remote areas in which barely any researcher has succeeded in obtaining the data about the levels of reproductive control. The general assumption states that most cultural areas and all societies have instances of reproductive control. However, it is impossible to explicitly and accurately state the level of damage to the women in certain societies. Extensive research is, therefore, relevant in the fight to save the women indiscriminately from reproductive control. Psychological and medical research is also crucial in the efforts to deal with the victims of sexual abuse. For example, diff

Guiding and counseling

Many women are not exposed to professional help to help them deal with the effects of trauma. They therefore spend a lot of their time depressed. This condition affects their productivity as well as other relationships.

Guiding and counseling such as organizing programs where groups of people with the same issues can discuss and let free their pressure is extremely important. As they meet more people with similar situations, it is possible to increase the rate of the healing process and return to normality.

Most women (both young girls and mature women) lack trust worthy people that they can confide their information. A guiding and counselor professional dedicated in concealing their secrets and help them regain their self-esteem and positivity is life is crucial for the healing process of the traumatized victim.

Curricula adjustment

In order to reduce the unintentional cases of reproductive control due to ignorance; High school and College institutions should include compulsory causes. This knowledge will go a long way in helping the young couples to develop a culture of consideration towards the reproduction issues ensuring they avoid female reproductive control

Public enlightenment

The Public, mostly ignorant of neither the existence of reproductive control nor the impact to the women and the society in general, will continue to cause the damage until they get the knowledge.

Anonated Bibliography

Ann M. Morre, Lori Frohwirth & Elizabeth Miller (2010) Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States. Guttmacher Institute, New York, United States.

Morre, Frohwirth and Miller explore the causes and impacts of the reproduction control of women. In their journal, they assert that the women who experience sexual violence are vulnerable to poor reproductive health in comparison to those women who are not abused. They explore the situation in the United States (As well as other developed countries), where Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are at an alarming high and leads to either contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (due to failure to use contraceptives) or unwanted pregnancies. These conditions consequently lead to decisions to repeated abortions, miscarriages and poor development of the fetus (Morre et al, 2010). This journal provides crucial information on the impact of reproductive control in societies all over the world.

Cathy Zimmerman, Mazeda Hossain, Kate Yun, Brenda Roche, Lind Morisson, & Charlotte Watts. (2009) Stolen Smiles. A summary report on the physical and psychological health consequences of women and adolescents trafficked in Europe. London School of Hygene & tropical Medicine.

Zimmerman, Hossain, Yun, Roche, Morrison and Watts focused their study on the causes of reproductive control in seeking to find the appropriate solution. Financial worries, they concluded, increased the chances of male domination and abusive habits towards their spouses. Moreover, their journal reveals that most men resolution to abuse their spouses during their pregnancy period is attributed to the unplanned natural competition that arises between the potential father and unborn baby. The male partner often seeks to coerce their spouse to resolve their pregnancy in way that they have not planned consequently leading to misunderstandings  that increase conflicts in a marriage. The journal contains vital information that reveals the causes of reproductive control.

Engelman, P. (2011). A history of the birth control movement in America. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Engelman explores the occurrence of reproductive control in various cultural groups. He shows the evidence in relationships where the male partners force their intentions without considering the views of the women. For example, he explicitly examines the forms of occurrence. They include; financial constraints (for instance to ensure conception the men deny the women money to buy contraceptives or pay for abortion), emotional torture (threats, accusations and also in denying paternity of the pregnancy),  and physical abuse (violence by beating the woman when she attempts methods to avoid the pregnancy).

In Bloom, H. (2013). Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. New York: Chelsea.

Bloom explicitly examines the life of Mary Shelley and also her thoughts and notes especially her letter that reveals her agony and fear of child rearing and nurturing. Mary Shelley’s expressions in Frankenstein reveal the fear of her ability to nurture children appropriately especially without the help of the male partners. Born in the 18th Century, the author notes, Mary Shelley grew in a society in which the parents played a big role in developing the romanticism in a child in readiness for marriage. Being an only child, she received special attention in care from her parents who were also responsible parents and were strict on the moral standards that defined their society (Bloom, 2013). This books gives appropriate information that describes the extent of women’s woes in childbirth and the impact of reproductive control.

References

Ann M. Morre, Lori Frohwirth & Elizabeth Miller (2010) Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States. Guttmacher Institute, New York, United States.

Cathy Zimmerman, Mazeda Hossain, Kate Yun, Brenda Roche, Lind Morisson, & Charlotte Watts. (2009) Stolen Smiles. A summary report on the physical and psychological health consequences of women and adolescents trafficked in Europe. London School of Hygene & tropical Medicine.

Engelman, P. (2011). A history of the birth control movement in America. Santa Barbara,          Calif:   Praeger.

In Bloom, H. (2013). Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.