Sample Research Paper on Security and Terrorism Management

Factors relating to globalization and technology advancements have triggered the
increase of issues presenting security concerns around the globe. Terrorist
activities, as well as cyberattacks, are among the issues documented in relation to
existing security concerns. Considering the possible occurrence of events that
relate to the terrorism of cyber-attacks could contribute notable effects, countries
must focus on implementing proper prevention and management strategies.
Therefore, these pages focused on evaluating security management, Homeland
Security, and terrorism management. The findings documented the need for
ensuring security management to boosts the reliability of critical infrastructures.
Further, the researchers reported the need for implementing the relevant measures
to manage issues that relate to terrorism. Within the United States, efforts of
security management and prevention of terrorism are the role of the Homeland
Security department. The paper concluded that considering the increase of terrorist
threats in huge populations as well as Heads of State targeting, security risk
assessment and plan development before and during the specific function is

Security & Terrorism Management 3
The world has in the recent past experienced a surge of issues that create significant
security concerns. Factors relating to globalization, computerization, and increased internet
accessibility pose significant threats associated with cyber-attacks and terrorism. The criticality
of advanced security issues faced today relates to the resulting impacts. Security issues tend to
threaten life continuity and daily government operations especially when they affect critical
infrastructures. As a strategy of promoting security management, the United States Homeland
Security Department participates in the management of all critical infrastructures. Therefore,
these pages will focus on evaluating security management, Homeland Security, and terrorism

Security Management

Security management is a critical aspect of the protection of critical infrastructures (CIs)
in both developing and developed nations. While critical infrastructures play a significant role in
enabling the reliability, the ongoing globalization poses significant security threats. For instance,
globalization has created a borderless world by increasing transportation through different
strategies and enhancing communication through advances in computers and internet
technologies. While the efficiencies have been critical to supporting national economic growth
and development, the associated threats pose significant risks relating to terrorism and cyber-
attacks. As a result, governments must prioritize the idea of security management to ensure that
critical infrastructures are maintained and protected. Through proper security management,
nations would efficiently manage to ensure the continuous operation, safety, performance, and
reliability of CIs.

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Typically, security management describes an integrative role that focuses on identifying a
nation’s assets which are both people and sectors that promote continuous operations of daily life
operations. Further, security management incorporates the development and planning of
strategies and policies that promote the management of the identified assets together with their
documentation and implementation. Governments are able to identify critical infrastructures
together with possible threats through security management. In the United States, the Department
of Homeland Security undertakes the responsibility of managing the security of critical
Critical Infrastructures
Critical infrastructures in the US describe both assets and systems both virtual and
physical that are increasingly significant and their service disturbance could pose severe effects
to national security with respect to factors that include, safety, public health, and economic
wellness (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). Critical infrastructure sectors include the energy sector
which incorporates sources of energy production, as well as storage and distribution resources.
Others include the water and wastewater systems, dams, transportation systems, government
facilities, and information technology sectors. In addition, critical infrastructures include the
nuclear reactors, materials, and waste sectors, defense industrial, chemical, critical
manufacturing, and commercial facilities sectors. More so, the United States recognizes national
monuments and icons as CIs. According to the Department of Homeland Security, they represent
the physical structures, geographical locations, monuments, and objects that are agreed as critical
representations of the national culture or are linked with some form of historical or religious
significance (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015).

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The need for security management in countries has been exacerbated by the
interdependence of critical infrastructure sectors. While the interdependence implies that
different sectors depend on each other for efficient operations, it equally means that the
disruption of a single sector could trigger notable effects on interrelated sectors as well (Alcaraz,
and Zeadally, 2015). Scholars note that there exist different relationship types which are logical,
geographic, physical, and cyber (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). Geographic interdependency
describes a relationship that results when different infrastructures are located within a similar
location and the occurrence of a problem in a single infrastructure could negatively impact the
other CIs.
Further, logical interdependency explains relationships where the actions, decisions, and
systems of a specific infrastructure agent tend to be attached to a different agent of another CI
despite the lack of an uninterrupted association through geographic, cyber, or physical
connections (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). On the other hand, physical interdependency
describes a form of connectedness relating to the acceptance of raw material or resources from
different CIs. Lastly, cyber interdependency is associated with the current connectedness in
systems of information and communication between and among varying critical infrastructure
sectors (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015).
Security management in countries like the united states describe highly complex
responsibilities that utilize varying technologies to increase efficiency. United States has for
decades maintained the position of the primary economic power recording significant technology
adoptions in different critical sectors. Equally, the technological advances and expertise are
documented in criminal practices thus posing significant security threats to government

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operations as well as other critical infrastructures. A common aspect of security management
relates to the protection of data primarily government data from the enemy.
Basically, data protection in security management relates to a government's need to
promote the efficiency and reliability of information systems performance in all critical
infrastructures (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). Managing the security of Critical Information
Infrastructures (CIIs) could effectively promote security management in all other sectors.
According to Alcaraz, and Zeadally (2015), critical information infrastructures incorporate the
information procedures that are driven by communication and information technology forming
their specific critical infrastructures and are significant to other CIs operations. In a nutshell, the
scholars imply that most critical infrastructures crucial to societal operations rely on systems of
information for the management of delicate data that links to critical infrastructures.
According to Alcaraz, and Zeadally (2015), unexpected occurrences on infrastructures of
information systems could result to significant outcomes that would, in turn, impact the
reliability, safety, performance, and security of the related CIs. As such, there exists a significant
need for countries to focus on security management which would facilitate the development of
efficient measures for protecting CIIs. Security management has seen the development of
Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) which incorporates activities and
infrastructure programs manufacturers, owners, operators, institutions of Research and
Development (R&D), users, regulatory authorities, and governments that focus on ensuring
critical infrastructures such as information systems reliability in a situation of attacks, accidents,
or failures (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). More so, the team seeks to improve service delivery
and reduce both damages and time required for recovery.

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Therefore, security management should be perceived as an integrative role instead of a
role that is limited to specified sectors in order to promote the efficiency of outcomes. Within
security management both the ideas of critical information infrastructure protection should be
integrated with those of critical infrastructure protection in order to ensure the protection of
national data (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). Countries tend to be keen on aspects that relate to
the protection of cyber systems due to the underlying risk of utilizing information systems to
undertake different threats and terrorist acts. The United States acknowledges the criticality of
security management through critical information infrastructure protection by outlining that it is
important for both the country’s economic and national security built, designed, and
implemented by private sectors (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015).
The United States policy that accepts the need for CIP protection in sectors perceives
CIIs as critical infrastructures since their data is usually secret to the public and equally promotes
the security of protected systems. According to Alcaraz, and Zeadally (2015), information and
communication technology describes the critical infrastructures pillar that incorporates varying
network topologies, interfaces for data transmission and management, as well as communication
links that target to promote reliability and timely deliveries. Critical information structures are
described as very critical elements in different sectors. For instance, in Industrial Control
Systems (ICS) are responsible for supervising and controlling industrial infrastructure operations
like lines of electrical distribution and transmission, oil and gas pipelines/refineries, energy bulk
generation systems, together with water treatment systems (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015).
ICS communication structural design incorporates communication topologies, links, as
well as techniques that enhance the receiving and processing of data from nearby remote
substations of the infrastructure under supervision. The management of the security of such

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systems is both critical and unavoidable especially considering that they include automated
systems that include different industrial engineering devices like sensors, actuators, and Remote
Terminal Units (RTUs) that collect and send information relating to infrastructure controls such
as that relating voltage, pressure, and temperature levels (Alcaraz, and Zeadally, 2015). As such,
every CI sector should ensure the perfect understanding of its information systems to increase
vigilance while evaluating the efficiency in performance.
Security Risk Management
Security risk management is the backbone of overall security management and
incorporates the idea of identifying, evaluating, treating, and monitoring the existing risks. The
primary step in managing security risks is the identification of the existing threats which requires
the evaluation of possible issues in the current controls as well as the probability of threats and
equally determine the possible risk effects in a situation of risk occurrence. Normally, possible
risks could be internal referring to those that could possibly develop from within the country/
sector/ organization. Others could develop from outside the country and are identified as external
After identifying the underlying security threats, the security management team should
focus on prioritizing the risks with the aim of evaluating the possibility of event presentation as
well as the effects that could result. Understanding the possibility of risk presentation enables the
specific sectors a chance to focus on the riskiest issues. The next step after risk prioritizing is the
treatment/ management of the problem by ensuring the classification of the specific risk and
selection of the most effective response strategy depending on the specific event. The
management phase involves the identification of possible response strategies for identified
threats in a manner that would ensure agility and minimize the risk impacts. Lastly, the

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managing team should focus on outcome monitoring ad ensure the fixing of possible issues that
could be presented in the general security management operations.
Further, the teams should focus on elements that would efficient for the management of
external risks which could take different options such as avoidance, reduction, transfer,
spreading, or acceptance. Risk avoidance relates to the idea of failing to enter or accept situations
that present hazards. Experts discourage in the acceptance of the specific strategy noting that it
presents challenges that could implicate other effective strategies. For instance, avoidance of
threats could include the failure to adopt certain technologies due to their associated risks.
Another option to responding to risks is through risk reduction which is a strategy that could
focus on different measures that include educating participants on risk management and
utilization of preventive measures. For instance, specific sectors could focus on ensuring the
protection of CIIs through the appreciation of preventive measures such as passwords to protect
data. Further, risk transfer describes a situation that results when sectors transfer the possible
risks to other parties through contracts or insurance purchases. Risk acceptance, on the other
hand, describes a situation where the specific affected CI accepts the cost of risk management.
Typically, regardless of the strategy that the critical infrastructure sector decides to
employ for risk management, communication serves as a crucial aspect in security management.
Primarily, communication promotes the possibility of ensuring that the interdependent sectors
facing similar threats or risks ensure the implementation of the appropriate risk management
strategies. For example, in a case of a threat relating to information systems in different critical
infrastructures, the responsible teams would be in a position to ensure the implement different
safety measures. More so, communication plays a significant role in increasing the vigilance of

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other sectors to evaluate the security of their information systems and equally ensure the
implementation of the appropriate safety measures.
Furthermore, communication of issues relating to security management promotes the
appreciation of developing security measures to emerging problems. Similar to technology
advances, security concerns advance at high rates and require the utilization of equally advanced
measures to minimize their impacts. For instance, the utilization of encrypted language and
codes in communications between criminals or terrorists limit the chances of authority detection.
Different sectors should focus on communicating developing coding as well as effective codes
for decrypting encrypted data. In the united states, communicating about developing problems
increases the vigilance of the Homeland Security Department in pooling together resources that
evaluate security issues in different critical infrastructures.
The management of security in countries plays a significant role in assuring citizen
protection and as well as protection of critical infrastructures. Ideally, security management
ensures the continuity of operations in case of an incident and minimizes the impacts associated
with developing incidents. More so, security management promotes the reliability of critical
infrastructures which is simply defined as the practice of ensuring that they operate as expected.
Managing security minimizes the development of issues that could disrupt essential life quality
enhancers such as national security, health, and safety of the public since governments are able
to respond to disasters quickly and equally limit the occurrence impending threats. Therefore, the
application of proactive security management measures could be more critical to promoting
proper progress in managing national security.

Terrorism Prevention and Management

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Terrorism has been a significant issue for global nations over recent decades. According
to the United States Code Section 2331 domestic terrorism explains practices that incorporate
behaviors that pose danger to human life and violate the US criminal regulations as well as those
of other states (Jackson et al., 2019). More so, it could explain activities that target to coerce or
intimidate civilians, or affect government policy through coercion or intimidation, and impact
government conduct through practices that include kidnapping, mass destruction, or
assassination. Further, rimes that present in United States territorial jurisdiction. Both the united
states and international definitions for terrorism imply the need for nations to implement
terrorism prevention and management strategies.
According to Jackson et al (2019), terrorism prevention which is the overriding of
activities and programs that were in the past described as countering violent extremism (CVE) is
among the United States' complex reactions to threats relating to extremist and terrorism inspired
violence. Efforts of terrorism prevention and management integrate those of enforcing
counterterrorism (CT) and criminal justice through ensuring prevention of threat occurrence and
minimizing the necessity for implementing CT actions within the US (Jackson et al., 2019).
More so, efforts of terrorism prevention and management focus on the management of persons
who have been released after conviction on offenses that relate to terrorism activities.
Experts argue that major united states terrorist threats have been contributed by the
radicalization of people through activities that include interaction with people representing
global terrorism groups overseas, exposure to terrorist content through the internet, as well as
through attacks or attack attempts by people who are motivated by foreign/ domestic terrorist
groups (Jackson et al., 2019). Most nations have continued focusing on efforts of countering
violent extremism as an approach for minimizing terrorist attack threats from persons who have

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migrated to conflict zones to battle, as well as those who have volunteered to implement violence
with the US or back terrorist groups.
Originally, the United States initiated a focus on aspects relating to violence mobilization
and radicalization after the 9/11 attacks in 2001 (Jackson et al., 2019). However, following the
Fort Hood attack in 2009 as well as the 2010 attempt to bomb Times Square, the US started
active CVE interventions. The reduced terrorist threat levels in the united states in comparison to
those of other nations have enabled the country to implement strategies for managing possible
threats. The United States has active terrorism prevention and management programs and
policies that target to minimize terrorism risks in a manner that is different from incarcerating or
investigating persons suspected of supporting or planning violence (Jackson et al., 2019).
Nevertheless, the country struggles with the development of policies that would enhance
proper response to the reduced terrorist incidence considering that the resulting outcomes are far-
reaching (Jackson et al., 2019). As such, the united states focus on increasing efficiency in
terrorism prevention and management through the utilization of tools that seek to minimize
terrorism for a long time. The tools seek to minimize recruitment/ radicalization of individuals to
groups of terror, ensuring interventions with persons who are susceptible to violent
radicalization, and reduce impacts relating to terrorist messaging. More so, the tools employed
by the united states incorporate activities and programs that seek to prevent reoffending for
individuals who had been incarcerated for crimes relating to terrorism (Jackson et al., 2019).
Strategies of terrorism prevention and management are equally focused on educating
communities which normally describes the concept of creating awareness on aspects that relate
to crime investigation.

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The need to implement terrorism prevention and management strategies in the United
States significant especially as a strategy for minimizing the severity of impacts. Terrorist attacks
pose significant threats to people, the economy, properties, and the environment as well. Within
the US, about 10 individuals have been killed annually in terrorist attacks between the end of
2001 and 2018 (Jackson et al., 2019). The different strategy efforts employed by the Department
of Homeland Security such as radicalization prevention targets to minimize forms of violence
that are motivated by extremist or ideology causes.
Terrorism prevention and management focuses on ensuring the development of options
that go further than the traditional tools of criminal justice such as arrest, trial, and imprisonment
(Jackson et al., 2019). The tools seek to improve terrorism prevention for a prolonged period.
Equally, Homeland security focuses including the involvement of capabilities and non-
governmental organizations in promoting programs for terrorism management and prevention
(Jackson et al., 2019). The programs focus on ensuring that individuals intending to engage in
terrorist activities are apprehended before breaking the law and posing danger to both themselves
and other citizens as well.
The Department of Homeland Security focuses on efforts of preventing and managing
terrorism through radicalization minimization efforts such as counter-messaging and educating
communities, identification and assisting of venerable populations through efforts of creating
community awareness, trainings relating to low enforcement, intervention programs, and
recidivism minimization through ensuring that people who were previously imprisoned receive
the relevant services (Jackson et al., 2019). Intervention efforts are not limited to homeland
security but cold equally includes community entities, law enforcement government sectors, and
social services within or outside the government. Community-based terrorism prevention efforts

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include purely community organizations that involve in the prevention of terrorism while those
that are purely law enforcement describe government-based organizations most of which include
agencies of criminal justice (Jackson et al., 2019).
Options of terrorism prevention and management could take integrative or individual
operations depending on the local/ community area circumstances. Separate involvement is at
times documented in situations where the involved parties such as the government, agencies of
law enforcement, NGOs, and individuals have differing ideas (Jackson et al., 2019). Further, in
the case where the different parties agree on the strategies to employ in managing and preventing
terrorism, a multidisciplinary or collaborative method is employed. Considering the complexity
of terrorist attacks, employing collaborative strategies of preventing and managing terrorism
would be more convenient in enhancing management. Collaborations could effectively enhance
the countering of terrorism activities in time.
Security Risk Assessment and Plan Development Case
Efforts for security management have been critical to ensuring the availability of early
warnings as well as information on impending threats. The information enables sectors of critical
infrastructure to manage risks through ensuring proper implementation of both prevention and
management approaches. Over the years, terrorist activities tend to target areas that have a high
population which increases the severity of associated impacts. Improvised explosive devices
(IEDs) and homemade explosives are some of the devices used by attackers to perpetrate attacks
in commercial facilities which targets to cause both property damage and mass population
casualties (Department of Homeland Security, 2015). Open space locations are normally
vulnerable to such attacks. For example, locations that have thousands of spectators, as well as
notable leaders such as the Head of state, are at higher risks of terrorist attacks including

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bombing. In a situation of such threats, individuals in charge of security must focus on
promoting the implementation of strategies that ensure optimum security for all the people
Security management in a situation where there is ahead of state and some huge public
population creates the need for rigid security measures especially when accompanied by
warnings of possible bomb threats. The security team in charge must, therefore, focus on
ensuring the proper assessment of the impending risk as well as the efficient plans for resolving
the issues. In a situation of bomb alerts in a location where the Head of State and high
populations are present requires the assessment of physical risks as well as cyber vulnerabilities.
Considering that the parade within a stadium represents a commercial facility, evaluating the
possible disruption outcomes and including relevant data sourced for information sharing
intelligence and experience is critical. The evaluation plays a significant role in enabling the
security team to develop the most effective strategies for risk reduction.
Personally, assessing the risk would involve a partnership with the fusion centers to
increase the gathering, analysis, and threat-associated information sharing between different
involved institutions. Considering the presence of the Head of State to the stadium parade,
information sharing could include high priority security departments to promote efficiency. For
example, the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Justice (DOJ), and the Federal
Bureau of Investigations (FBI) could be involved in enhancing security plans for the specific day
(Department of Homeland Security, 2015). The involvement of the different experienced
departments in handling security could promote the assessment of possible bomb threats and
enable the implementation of the necessary prevention strategies to prevent the threat.
Government facilities infrastructure, information technology systems, communication systems as

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well as the transportation system critical infrastructures would play a significant role in
facilitating research on the specific issue.
After evaluating the risk and realizing that the bomb threats are indeed possible, the
teams could consider the incorporation of the Infrastructure Survey Tool (IST). Typically, IST
describes security surveys that promote the identification and documentation of all the security
relating to critical infrastructure and would equally enable the provision of data relating to
proactive planning strategies as well as the allocation of resources (Department of Homeland
Security, 2015). More so, the survey would be critical in enabling information sharing between
government agencies, in this case, to evaluate the available information and assist in developing
useful metrics. Considering that the IST tool utilizes the Protective Measures Index method to
determine the CI capability in resisting disruptive happenings (Department of Homeland
Security, 2015), the tool in this context would enhance the possibility of using relevant strategies
to eliminate the impending threat.
Typically, IST incorporates some form of control panel that develops a Protective
Measures Index for the facility in question and is employed to evaluate similar facilities while
including the Resilience Measurement Index (RMI) evaluating aspects of preparedness,
mitigation strategies, capabilities of response, and mechanisms of recovery (Department of
Homeland Security, 2015). In addition, the tool plays a significant role in informing about some
of the planning and allocation of resources strategies that could be applied proactively. The
comparison could enhance the team to determine the possibility and effectiveness of utilizing the
existing in place strategies to overcome the bomb threat. The RMI operates at a scale of 100
showing high resilience and 0 showing minimal resilience thus enabling the development of a
comparison of various CI resilience (Department of Homeland Security, 2015). Equally, RMI

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offers a center for determining which priorities of physical and operational efficiencies could be
employed to promote the resilience of assets.
The security plan would, therefore, focus on strengthening the protected and trusted
strategy of information sharing and enhance the accessibility of actionable, timely, and threat
particular data and analysis throughout the preparation process. This would be achieved through
the official improvement of information sharing between procedures of the private and public
entities and equally allow the team responsible for the management of the stadium access the
relevant intelligence to focus on improving their management strategies (Department of
Homeland Security, 2015). More so, the plan could focus on enhancing the sharing of
information relating to between the private and public as a strategy for streamlining
documentation. This could be effective in ensuring that emerging issues relating to the bomb
threat are received and countered early enough. More so, the security plan for the specific day
would focus on ensuring the promotion of participation value through the process of handling the
issue, this would further teamwork as well as enhance accessibility all the involved sections
including those that appear less critical.
More so, the plan would focus on increasing the availability, economic strength, and
public confidence while still ensuring the application of budget-conscious strategies for
minimizing cyber ad physical threats and supporting total increment of both resilience and
security. Improvement of public confidence would be an effective strategy for ensuring that
regardless of the impending threats relating to the bomb issue, the public could still be involved.
The plan would focus on strategies that include expansion of facilities that include training,
education, and practices that would enable operators and the public to gain knowledge on both
readiness and risk reduction.

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Readiness serves not only as a crucial aspect in enabling efficiency in preparedness but
also in promoting agility in evacuation works in case of an emergency. Basically, training/
education and exercise offers the involved teams expertise on responding to attacks, which could
help in minimizing injuries, damages, and losses. Additionally, the plan could focus on a strategy
that seeks to enhance the security of cyber resources considering that they could be altered to
minimize the realization of communication during attack perpetration. Information systems serve
as a critical aspect of terrorism management as they enhance communication between the
officers within the site as well as those in specific stations. As such, the efficiency of cyber
systems would not only promote the effectiveness of terrorism prevention in the stadium but also
enhance communication in case suspense presents.
Having evaluated the capability of the facility to avoid risks, the plan would equally
focus on maintaining the efficiency of the effective and advanced systems to promote proper and
timely response together with recovery procedures. This could be achieved through enhancing
proper coordination with the interrelated facilities as well as community response agencies in
order to promote flexibility and equally promote decision-making procedures. Having
implemented the different strategies before the parade date, the plan will ensure the analyzing
and assessment of threats, susceptibilities, and outcomes on a specific day and notify risk
management teams of the facility as well as those of collaborating sectors. This could be
achieved through continuous evaluation of physical and cyber risks as well as the development
of measures for minimizing the presenting threats if they are still valid. In case the team finds the
claims of bomb threat still active, the team would ensure partnership with various security
institutions including federal, local, and regional stakeholders.

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The last step could involve the promotion of ongoing adaptation and learning during the
planning which could involve advising the crowds present during the parade on the best exit
routes as well as ensuring that every person getting in the stadium is identified and their identity
documented. In addition, the plan could include sharing flexibility and security practices to
ensure that all the risk response teams available at the scene are well equipped with skills that
would promote timely response.
Other than the efforts outlined above, the plan would consider the sourcing of enough
security management personnel from law enforcement agencies as well as security expertise
departments including the FBI. Further, considering the bomb threats could be true, security
management should focus on carrying out an assessment to ensure the screening of explosive
devices. The assessment should include bomb experts who would in case of explosives
identification carry out safe elimination of the devices. Even when the assessment fails to detect
possible explosives within the facility, the management team should ensure that entrance to the
stadium is through the specified checkpoints and everybody attending the parade is screened
effectively. Proper application of safety measures during the specified day could not only
promote threat prevention but also promote proper response efforts.
In conclusion, security concerns have presented a significant topic of research especially
in the 21 st century. Increasingly, the security concerns are linked to the need for coping with
challenges that present with technological advancement and globalization. Following the
increasing demand for minimizing the occurrence of threats, countries are focusing on the
management of critical infrastructure security. Due to the complexity and criticality of
information systems, most efforts of security management focus on implementing proactive

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strategies for safeguarding cyber resources. Within the united states, the Department of
Homeland Security undertakes the responsibility of ensuring the prevention and management of
terrorism. In cases of threats, security risk assessment focuses on ensuring the participation of
relevant departments through information sharing and implementation of plans that focus on
ensuring location security before and after the incidence.

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Alcaraz, C. and Zeadally, S., 2015. Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and
challenges for the 21st century. International journal of critical infrastructure
protection, 8, pp.53-66.
Department of Homeland Security (2015). Commercial Facilities Sector-Specific Plan An Annex
to the NIPP 2013. [online] Available at:
508.pdf [Accessed 28 Nov. 2019].
Jackson. B. A., Ashley. L. R., Jordan. R. R., Natasha. L., Katherin. C., and Sina. B.
2019. Practical Terrorism Prevention: Reexamining U.S. National Approaches to
Addressing the Threat of Ideologically Motivated Violence, Homeland Security
Operational Analysis Center operated by the RAND Corporation, RR-2647-DHS