Sample Research Paper on Work Related Behaviour at the Tanning Salon

Work Related Behaviour at the Tanning Salon


The Tanning Salon is one of the leading organizations in the provision of skin care devices through the use of updated technology on matters related to the skin. Through these activities, the company has been able to realize the desires of its target market, such as those with the intentions of minimizing the effects of aging on the skin. In the process of realizing its objective, the company operates through the services of its employees who play the role of implementing the mandate of the company. Despite this role, it is important to understand work related behavior and how it affects the relationship between the management, and the employees. The main objective of this paper is to analyze work related behavior in the Tanning Salon. This will include factors which affect different behavioral traits among the employees and the management in the company.

About the Company

            The Tanning Salon offers the best services and the latest technology in the tanning industry from Ergoline, which is largely considered as the leading supplier of the technological machinery. To be able to realize the objective of providing perfect services to its customers, the company has been engaged in the process of training its employees and the management on how to offer excellent tanning services coupled with promotions and the provision of great and satisfactory value. Prior to decision on the type of tanning that a client needs, the trained and qualified employees often conduct an assessment on the skin type to be able to recommend the most appropriate tanning sessions. In addition, the company provides platforms for advanced booking and direct access to services to ensure that it meets the divergent needs of the dynamic customers. The company has also provided customers with different payment options, such as the payment of the full fees at the beginning of the sessions or payment in installments as an individual continues with the tanning course.

In terms of organizational structure, The Tanning Salon operates on both the vertical and horizontal systems. The vertical structure can be compared to a top-down system of communication where the management through the leadership of the organizations is often responsible for deliberation on matters that require decision making. Through such an approach, the decision making process is a role dedicated to few members of the organization. The other individuals within the organization are often charged with the responsibility of implementing and abiding by the decisions. To minimize the possibility of passing decrees within The Salon, the interests of the employees are often represented by the human resource management considering the undeniable role of advocating for the wellbeing of the employees.

The organization also operates on the horizontal structure, which enhances communication across departments. Through such a structure, the junior members of the organizations are provided with a platform of airing their disappointments and suggestions for the organization (French, 2011). This is considered important since the input of these junior members can then be channeled to the management through the department of human resources. This is also a motivational factor since it provides a platform where junior members of the organization can feel appreciated and respected as individual with an essential part to play in the development of the Tanning Salon.



Work Related Behavior

The efficiency and the effective nature of the Tanning Salon to realize the intended goals and objectives is highly dependent on the ability of the salon through the management to develop strategies and policies that are aimed at the development of an organizational culture and the improvement of organizational behavior (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). For this to be realized, it is the responsibility of the management to consider individual behavior since the roles that such behavior plays in the development of essential cultural values are definitive to the success of the organization. Individual behavior among employees often influences the technique through which the Tanning Salon interacts with the external environment (French, 2011). This includes the ability to acquire and share knowledge. In addition, it also encompasses the techniques through which employees comprehend organizational goals and objectives, and how such an understanding can be used in the satisfaction of customer interests and the execution of the company’s mandate (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). An assessment of work related behavior within the Tanning Salon will include an understanding of the following aspects of organizational behavior;

Task Performance

This is often considerd as goal directed attributes within the control of individual employees that support the realization of organizational objectives. Through the adoption of task performance behaviors, employees in a work environment often learn how to involve their skills in the realization of an initiative. It is possible for Salon to realize effective task performance through the provision of motivating factors (French, 2011). The provision of incentives to the staff of the tanning Salon will allow the release of a set of energetic forces, which will play the role of initiating work related behavior. In the Tanning Salon, motivational assets include the development of a work-life balance strategy that will provide the employees with an assurance that the organization shares the responsibility of making their lives away from work comfortable (Aquinas, 2006). In addition, the provision of financial incentives of the creation of a safe working environment for all the employees can also play the purpose of initiating the most desirable behavior among employees (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

These views are in agreement with MARS model of individual behavior due to the assertion that the understanding of work related behavior in an organization is dependent on the characteristics of an individual. These include personality values, self-concept, perceptions, emotions, and stress. The ability of an organization to harness these traits in ways that will motivate employees improves their competencies, and changes their perceptions concerning their roles within the organization. In addition, through understanding the relationship between these factors and the prevailing environment, the organization can realize the production of desirable behavior.

Figure 1.0 MARS Model of individual behavior and results

Change of the role perception among employees can also be used as motivating factors in the Tanning Salon. This can be realized if the organization through the management puts much of organizational responsibilities as the mandate of the employees. This will help in the development of the idea that they play an essential role in the management of the organization. Such relaxation is considered important since it will enhance the ability of employees to complete their responsibilities as required by the management of the organization (French, 2011).

An additional way through which the management can ensure a change in role perception is by creating a tone for interpersonal communication among employees. This will play a role in enhancing the creation of teams and team building endeavors, which is considered essential in the production of a camaraderie that is essential in the improvement of employee interaction (Aquinas, 2006). The cohesive nature of a team will also be dependent on the prevailing conditions at the workplace, which may generate into the development of negative organizational behavior, such as group mentality (French, 2011). An alteration in role perception will also require the involvement of the management. This will require the management at the Tanning Salon to withhold any form of evaluate or discriminatory judgment until they have acquired sufficient and accurate information about employees and their work related challenges (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

Personalities are considered to be tarts that are definitive for an individual. These traits are often developed during the socialization process and in a working environment; it could be important for an organization, such as the Tanning Salon to consider the possibility of identifying the personality types of its employees and harness them into realizing organizational objectives (Griffins & Moorhead, 2013). This is however only possible through numerous instances and initiatives towards employee development. Additional trainings and workshop, for instance, are examples of employee development initiatives (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). Through these strategies, it is possible for The Tanning Salon to suppress undesirable personality traits while at the same time enhancing and improving on the desirable traits. Professional development on matters related to customer service and the development of team spirit within the organization will serve the purpose of altering the employees’ attitudes toward their job description. This will provide the organization with qualified and experienced teams for the execution of the organizational mandate (Aquinas, 2006).

The level of success that employees and the management at The Tanning Salon will realize in the execution of responsibilities will not be measured by the number of years or activities that employees have executed but by the number of assignments successfully completed in the stipulated time (Griffins & Moorhead, 2013). In addition, the Tanning Salon can also measure the success of its employee development initiatives through an assessment of the increase or decrease of its customer bases and an improvement in its market share.

In the process of finding an association between the personality traits of employees at the Tanning Salon and organizational success, there is a possibility that the organization will address attitudinal traits of job involvement and organizational commitment (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). The understanding of the role that these attitudes play in the development of the organization will help the management at the Tanning Salon to assess the extent to which its employees are able to embrace the attitude of job involvement as a way of realizing an organizational goal. Job involvement can help the Tanning Salon in ensuring that its staff is part of a competitive advantage for realizing personal growth of the employees and job satisfaction (Griffin & Moorhead, 2012).  The process of developing this attitude requires the management to allocate responsibilities according to the levels of qualification and areas of expertise. In addition, through such allocations, it will be possible for the organization to ensure that its staff acquires sufficient and valuable experience in their areas of work (French, 2011).

The emotional stability of employees also plays a role in determining the extent to which employees will execute their responsibilities in the Tanning Salon. The ability of employees to recognize the role emotions play in defining behavior at their places of work will be essential in the realization of unity and teamwork within the organization (Zastrow et al, 2010). Emotional reactions are considered personal but sometimes also affect those around the emotional person (French, 2011). This is an indication that through personal awareness on the impact of individual emotional reactions on the environment, it is possible to generate solutions towards the problem (Aquinas, 2006).  This will assist the employees and the management at the Tanning Salon to develop strategies on how to change and improve their environment with the help of their emotional behaviors. In addition, emotional traits, such as empathy and forced optimism can be used in altering the dynamics at the Tanning Salon for the better (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

Organizational Citizenship

The ability of an organization, such as the Tanning Salon, to engage in effective competition, transform resources, and serve the desires of different stakeholders cannot be considered as a possible endeavor if employees of the organization only engage in their formal responsibilities. This understanding generates the knowledge that employees have a role to play in the development of organizational citizenship behavior (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). These forms of behavior are inclusive of numerous forms of cooperation that are helpful to other members of the society and those that provide support to the psychological and the social context of the organization. This means that the success of the Tanning Salon is not only dependent on task performance but also on contextual performance through organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).  There are various forms of organizational citizenship behavior and these are all directed towards enhancing the wellbeing of coworkers and the organization (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). Behaviors, such as providing assistance to workers with their work related problems and showing genuine concern to other employees within the organization can be considered as aspects of OCB directed towards individuals (Griffin & Moorhead, 2012). In other instances, OCB can be used in harnessing cooperation of the well-being of the organization. These may be inclusive of promoting a positive reputation and image of the organization, offering solutions to problem beyond those of a job description, and engaging in voluntary service as part of corporate social responsibility (Borkowski, 2009).

Developing of an understanding of the core values of an organization will help in the development of effective OCB. This is because the core values act as the guiding principles that define the way an individual should operate while in a work environment. These principles will help individuals in an organizational context to choose the right from the wrong, and align their choices to the organizational goals and objectives (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). The desire by the Tanning Salon to be the leading enterprise in offering tanning related services can only be realized by identifying workplace values that set the tone for organizational culture. In addition, through organizational values, it will be relatively easier for the management and the employees to understand the most essential aspects for the organization (Aquinas, 2006).  Failure by the management at the Tanning Salon to identify the overall organizational values and how these values relate to individual work related values often leads to some form of disunity within the organization (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). This is because when personal values are in disagreement with organizational values, employees will work toward the realization of different goals, with different interiors hence a realization of different outcomes. When this happens, it damages interpersonal relationships within the organization, minimizes the possibility of job satisfaction, and limits the creative potential of the employees within the organization (Griffin & Moorhead, 2012).

An understanding of organizational culture and the development of organizational citizen behavior is also dependent on the existing norms that define operations within the organization. Through these norms, it is possible for the management to regulate and enhance selected behavioral traits among employees (Aquinas, 2006).  The presence of norms within organizations, such as the Tanning Salon can be considered essential in the development of feeling of security and the provision of some form of orientation, especially to new employees (McShane & Von, 2008). Work related behavior that is largely defined by organizational norms is also dependent on the way employees interact with stakeholders, such as customers. For the Tanning Salon, the customer is considered as the most essential stakeholder (Aquinas, 2006). This is because customers are the primary purchasers of the services and products offered by the organization. This explains why it is a company norm for employees to demonstrate high levels of appreciation, care, and respect when handling customers. This is often aimed at ensuring that the company develops an aspect of competitive advantage in terms of customer service (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

In order for the Tanning Salon to have defining norms, such as those dedicated towards effective customer care and punctuality in the execution of responsibilities, there are reward systems for the best performing employees and departments. This is often aimed at reinforcing the behavior by increasing the possibility that the behavior will be repeated. In addition, the company also engages in instances of punishment for employees and departments which fail to adhere to the organizational norms that are considered important in the development of organization as citizenship behavior (Zastrow et al, 2010). Despite these actions, it is important for the organization to ensure that there is a proper understanding of employee expectation in relation to adherence to norms. This form of understanding plays the role of facilitating the development of desirable behavioral traits in the work environment (Borkowski, 2009).

Counterproductive Work Behavior

The process of addressing work related behavior in an organizational context involves the development of an understanding of counterproductive work behaviors (Griffins & Moorhead, 2013). Such behaviors are often voluntary and in most cases they often have the ability to harm the reputation of an organization, Counterproductive work behavior often occurs in situations where individuals in an organizational setting voluntarily neglect values, norms, and ethical codes of the organization (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). In the Tanning Salon, for instance, it is the responsibility of every individual to respect and appreciate customers, and work according to the professional codes of ethics. However, in some instances, individual employees have been involved in work sabotage and work avoidance. This not only affects the reputation of the company but also the ability of the company to engage in competitive business (Aquinas, 2006). High performance teams within an organization can only be developed through an adherence to organizational ethics, which are definitive of the organizations culture and goals. In addition, healthy competition among employees can be realized through the development of teams, and engaging in team building initiatives also help in minimizing the possibility that employees will contravene the tenets of the existing ethical principles (French, 2011).

For an organization, such as the Tanning Salon to ensure minimal instances of counterproductive work behavior, it would be important to identify employability traits in the process of conducting interviews for new members of staff. Through an assessment of these individuals to determine their levels of employability, it will be easier for the company to ensure that the selection process is defined by the abilities and competencies of the potential employees (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). In addition, through these variables, the recruitment process can be perceived to be championing for professionalism as this will help in hiring individuals who understand and have the ability to adhere to organizational values, norms, and ethical principles. This not only minimizes the possibility of counterproductive behavior but also increases the ability of the company to compete on the basis of the capabilities of its employees (French, 2011).

Joining and Becoming Part of an Organization

Work related behavior is often developed over time. This means that for an organization to ensure task performance and organization citizenship, it would be important to have a group of employees dedicated toward the realization of these initiatives. In addition, the presence of employees within the organization will also necessitate the development of counterproductive behavior (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). There are factors that determine the behavioral raids that will characterize work environment in any organization. In the case of the Tanning Salon, for instance, it is the responsibility of the management to understand the essence of hiring staff from diverse backgrounds (French, 2011). This understanding is considerd a possibility in relation to the ability of the role that diversity plays in enhancing desirable of no-desirable behavioral traits. The current workface at the Tanning Salon is derived from different racial and ethnic backgrounds (Aquinas, 2006). These individuals are not only influenced by their socialization process but also by the organization culture in the company. It is therefore the responsibility of the Tanning Salon through the management to determine the traits that would enhance growth and development of the organization (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

The channels of communication and the decision making process form an essential part of the factors determining the possibility that employees will join and stay in an organization. An organization which encourages both vertical and horizontal structures of communication is likely to attract more employees since it encourages the development of an all-inclusive organizational culture, which is an essential determinant of the development of positive behavior within organizations, such as the Tanning Salon (Aquinas, 2006). The communication channels and decision making structures play an important role in improving work related behavior considering their essence in conflict management. It is common for conflicts to arise in any social context. However, conflict resolution mechanisms help in the determination of the dedication of the management in matters related to employee wellbeing (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).

The ability of the Tanning Salon to develop structures that are dedicated towards conflict management can help in ensuring peaceful co-existence and coordination between employees and departments (Griffins & Moorhead, 2013). In addition, through conflict management initiatives, it is also possible to channel different departments within the organization towards the realization of a common goal (Aquinas, 2006). This is considered as a technique through which the Tanning Salon retains its staff since any form of loss would introduce inefficiencies in terms of capacity and competencies. The realization that conflict is a common occurrence in any society should be considerd as the reason for the development of the ethical principles and the terms of reference (Zastrow et al, 2010). Conflict does not only refer to those disagreements between individuals but also conflicts in terms of responsibilities. One way through which the management can ensure the existence of a lasting resolution towards role conflict is by preparing detailed information on the terms of reference and job description (McShane & Von, 2008). These will provide employees with the necessary information concerning their expectations and the requirements of their employment positions (French, 2011).

Upholding Work Attendance

Other than playing the role of attracting and retaining customers, organizations have the responsibility of ensuring that the attendance of its employees is consistent with the scheduled time. This is only realizable when there are mechanisms that help in minimizing high levels of absenteeism among employees (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). This means that there are motivation mechanisms that must be incorporated to ensure that the employees find reason to attend to their employment responsibilities. By regularly attending to their organizational tasks, it would be prudent for the organization, such as the Tanning Salon to introduce measures that would cater for the satisfaction of other responsibilities that characterized the lives of its employees (Zastrow et al, 2010). This is in accordance with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which emphasize on the satisfaction of physiological needs. These will minimize the possibility of dissatisfaction or work related stress among employees (Pinder, 2014). To ensure comfort and stress free employment, it would be important for the Tanning Salon to satisfy other needs, such as safety, a feeling of belonging, improvement of self-esteem, and the development of initiatives that enhance self-actualization.

Figure 2.0 Marlow’s Hierarchy of needs

The limited success in ensuring consistent work attendance among employees at the Tanning Salon is enhanced by the prevailing organizational culture. This is mostly common in seasons when there is low customer traffic. During these seasons, employees in disrespect to the requirements and regulations choose to take time off (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of this behavior is the ability of the management to tolerate and expect employees to take some time off duty (Aquinas, 2006). A continuation of its culture within the organization may lead to the development of deviant behavior, especially when the tendency of absenteeism becomes a norm in the organization. It is therefore important for the management to conduct an assessment on the matters contributing to high prevalence of absenteeism and develop effective strategies on how to reduce the prevalence (French, 2011).


The development of any work related behavior in an organization is often influenced by the prevailing conditions. These conditions are those that the management and the employees within the organization create overtime. In addition, the ability of the management and the employees to work in accordance to the existing terms of reference and professional codes of ethics often provides mechanism for regulating the development of deviant behavior in an organizational setting. For the management at the Tanning Salon to regulate behavior, it would be important to operate in both the horizontal and vertical channels of communication and decision-making. This will provide platform for understanding and providing solutions to employee related concerns across all levels of the organization.

An understanding of organizational culture and is dependent on the existing norms that define operations within the organization. Through these norms, it is possible for the management to regulate and enhance selected behavioral traits among employees. It is common for conflicts to arise in any social context. However, conflict resolution mechanisms help in the determination of the dedication of the management in matters related to employee wellbeing. The realization that conflict is a common occurrence in any society should be considerd as the reason for the development of the ethical principles and the terms of reference. These principles play in defining the relationships between employees and the management.








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