Nature and Nurture
Twin studies divulge a lot about the significance of nature and nurture since twins share the same genetic make-up. The relative importance of the environment, as well as heredity in twin studies, is of major concern for both the public as well as psychologists. Nowadays, it has become very clear that even though certain and rare physical diseases are 100 percent related to nature, phenotypes for a variety of normal personalities including intelligence as well as personality are a result of nature and nurture. Twin studies reveal that the influences of nature and nurture are very profound in determining twin behaviors and these two forces operate together in order to determine one’s traits. Heredity and not the environment is responsible for developing as well as creating one’s personality according to most of the recent twin studies that reveal that a person’s character is something that he or she is born with. Genes perform a tremendous function in determining a person’s key personality traits including social skills as well as learning skills. For instance, half a century ago, scientists Peter and Viola studied twins who were separated at birth as well as given up for adoption. They discovered that they shared a lot in common despite being brought up in different environments.
The Self According to Charles Horton Cooley
Charles Horton Cooley defines the term “self” as any structure of ideas or just an idea that emerges from the communicative life, which the mind possesses. He further explains the term “looking glass self” as the growth of a person’s self out of the society’s interpersonal interactions as well as the perceptions of other people. “Looking glass self” connotes individuals shaping and molding their self-concepts based on their understanding of how other individuals perceive them. There are three main stages of the “looking glass self.” First, people imagine how they appear to others, which is something that this image may be correct or wrong since it is merely based on people’s assumptions. Second, people imagine what judgments individuals make of them based on their appearance. Lastly, people perceive how other people feel about them based on the judgments made about them. According to George Herbert Mead, the term “significant others” refers to the people that are well known to many people. They are very important to someone’s self, such as parents and guardians. Significant others affect one’s behavior, emotions, as well as a sense of self. The three-stage process of self-development by Mead includes the preparatory stage, the play stage, and the game stage.
This is a perspective that was developed by Erving Goffman that is based on the theoretical metaphor of actors, stage, as well as the audience in order to observe and analyze the workings of the social interactions of people. On the front stage, people as actors play their part in front of the audience, and backstage actors behave normally without the audience. Erving Goffman’s idea of an impression as well as face-work may be used to understand people’s behavior through illustrating the various rules and codes of behavior.
Agents of socialization
There are four agents of socialization including family, school, mass media, and peer groups. Schools help children in understanding the two genders. Moreover, through schools, children are able to internalize the different roles of each gender as well as the appearance of both. The spread, as well as advancement in technology such as television, mobile, radio, and internet, has profoundly affected the socialization process of children. Technology has changed the family unit from the traditional one in a variety of ways, and more than ever, children can now interact at all levels as well as receive and exchange a variety of information.
A total institution implies the workplace or dwelling where a number of similarly placed individuals are enclosed and lead a formally administered lifestyle. The four traits of Goffman’s total institutions include batch living, institutional perspective, inmate world, and binary management. The degradation ceremony implies the level at which a patient feels deceived by his family. Mortifications make it possible for the establishment of stable social arrangements and make a certain shift in moral behavior.
The issue of aging is one of the challenges that most societies in the world face today. Many of these societies deal with the elderly population through the provision of care services as well as making necessary contributions that help the aging population cope with life. Disengagement theory states that aging is an inevitable process, while the activity theory holds that staying mentally as well as physically active increases happiness among old people. Solutions to ageism include communicating and increased awareness.