Sample Technology Paper on Pola Oloixarac’s Las Constelaciones Oscuras

Pola Oloixarac’s Las Constelaciones Oscuras provides significant insights on the steps that
people can take to protect the multispecies hybridity. Although the work is a science fiction, it
has highlighted some important aspects on the means through which people should recognize the
hybridity of species and consequently take responsible actions towards the protection of different
hybrids. Published in 2015, the book is an indicator of how Spanish literary works have merged
post-humanist philosophy, biology, and media arts. Precisely, the novel encourages the reader to
contemplate on the role of human beings without focusing on anthropocentrism perceptions that
have been held dearly for many centuries. The novel has highlighted some of the contemporary
issues that affect human beings. For instance, it has emphasized on the increased surveillance
system used by governments and various corporations to underline the threat to multispecies
hybridity. Therefore, Oloixarac is concerned about the implications of various developments
although they have been addressed through a science fiction genre, which has the effect of
ensuring that some people do not consider the themes are relevant to the future.
Multispecies Hybridity in Las Constelaciones Oscuras
The novel provides in interesting and compelling narratives of technology, science, and
the quest for finding meaning and control in an individual’s economic and political
independence. Although the novel has focused on the autonomous of the society, it also goes into
depth in underlining some of the issues that the multispecies hybridity is facing in a world where

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technology is gradually taking over all aspects of humanity. On this note, it is essential to note
that technology has been very influential in ensuring that some careers do not consider the input
of people. For instance, the manufacturing industry has been virtually taken over by
technological input ensuring that human contribution is almost nonexistent in the production of
goods (324). Succinctly, the author highlights how the non-human and human connectedness has
rendered some section of the society redundant and obsolete. Consequently, Oloixarac is of the
view that people should learn the means through which the multispecies hybridity should be
handled responsibly to make certain that some of the species are not harmed in the process of the
interactions (Oloixarac). Moreover, the novel asserts that if the multispecies are not protected,
there could be great repercussions that might affect the continuum of life including human
One of the issues highlighted by the novel is the role of networks in the dissemination of
the information. In this regard, it is essential to note that some of the most important aspects of
life are derived from sharing information. Concisely, without access to information, many
societies would still be backward, a factor that could threaten life continuum. Networks have
been identified as having the ability of changing the speed and direction of information and other
interactions between different species (Bohn 126). In this regard, it to note that multispecies
hybridity is dependent on information and therefore networks are essential in ascertaining that
communication channels are effective. According to Oloixarac, information can be effectively
used by people to understand the multispecies hybridity. Furthermore, the information can be
used to communicate with other members of the society on the importance of being responsible
when handling multispecies hybridity (Wilkie 327). Responsibility has a critical role in
ascertaining that all involved parties are not harmed in the future because of the application of

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science and technology in different fields. Concisely, there is a need to ascertain that
multispecies hybridity does not result in destructive effects to the community.
Reality construction is subject to various variations that could alter the balance. On this
note, there is the concept of digital humanities have changed the way people receive and process
information. One of the factors that has led to this scenario is the fact that digital technologies
have overridden cultural barriers and therefore people send information on the assumption that it
will be understood as intended by people from different cultures. Oloixarac’s novel asserts that
digital humanities have the ability of coming up with new cultures that are alien to most of the
people. For instance, towards the end, she paints a grim picture where genetics and DNA to
match an individual’s genes with their locations (Oloixarac). On this note, the combination of
genes and digital technologies are used in the novel to underscore how future technologies may
affect the lives of human beings. In addition, most of the digital technologies have already
changed the way people interact with each other. For instance, in the past, face to face
communication was the primary mode of interaction (Lamare 54). However, with the
advancement of digital technologies, people are content with the application of the latest gadgets
for communication purposes. Therefore, the multispecies hybridity that combines human
elements with science and technology need to be handled responsibly to ascertain that they do
not have adverse impacts on the wellbeing of the society. Concisely, the digital technologies
have the potential of degrading the quality of life of many people because of reduced
socialization skills, which means that people cannot access emotional and psychological support
from those who have the responsibility to provide such help when needed.
The multispecies hybridity is also referenced in the novel when the writer insinuates that
there are some plants that can alter the consciousness of people. On this note, Oloixarac

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highlights a quest by scientists to obtain an orchid’s pollen located in Canary Islands. The pollen
is believed to breakdown the barriers between people by integrating their consciousness
(Oloixarac). Moreover, the pollen has the power to breakdown the consciousness barriers
existing between human and other non-human objects. Precisely, the scientists behind the quest
including cartographer Schats and insect trader Redbach come across a magnificent city of
indigenous tribe. In this regard, it is essential to note that the writer insinuates that there are
many aspects of life that most people are not aware of and cannot comprehend them when they
encounter these elements. Therefore, her emphasizes on recognizing the multispecies hybridity
can be used in reference to the different elements in the planet that most people are not aware of
and have limited knowledge. Although the technology has not advanced adequately to explain all
spheres of nature, some communities have advanced knowledge on different elements of life that
other societies do not have a clue that they exist (Bohn 129). Tersely, this brings about the lack
of a sufficient network that will create a conducive platform for sharing knowledge among all
peoples of the world. Noteworthy, the internet has been crucial in ascertaining that the world is
better informed regarding some of the cultures and social backgrounds of different regions of the
world. Nonetheless, it is essential to note that the transfer of knowledge is only limited to human
beings and they only rely on observing other species to garner limited knowledge about their
environments and consciousness. However, with advanced technology, it is possible for people
to derive knowledge from different species of animals and plants. The wealth of information that
is held by the species is likely to remain untapped unless technology is focused on devising the
means of accessing this knowledge. On this note, although the world has focused on
disseminating knowledge from various communities, it has not focused on recognizing the role

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of multispecies hybridity and the likely knowledge that will be derived from mining information
from other natural aspects including animals and plants.
Scientific classification is one of the factors that led to increased interest in nature. On
this note, Oloixarac has focused on the past 19 th century maniac approach by scientists to classify
different species of the plant. However, the scientists stopped short of only classifying the
species and failed in the identification of how nature is balanced with the co-existence of the
different animals and plants found on the planet. Succinctly, the maniac approach of scientists to
classify the species was overridden by the quest of greater technological advancements, which is
one of the ways that people fail short of recognizing the multispecies hybridity and instead focus
on the current trends in technology. Precisely, the world is composed of many elements of life
and for people to responsibly handle hybridity in the future, there is a need to focus on all aspects
of nature. Hence, many people do not contemplate on how the multispecies co-existence may
affect the future of human beings (Lulka 378). Precisely, it is essential to note that people are
likely to be adversely affected in the future if they do not recognize the multispecies hybridity
and the means it can be handled responsibly to ascertain that all stakeholders benefit from the
interaction, communication, and information that exist in nature.
The author also addresses how irresponsible approach to multispecies hybridity is likely
to affect the people in the future. Succinctly, most of the manifestations of how the world can be
negatively affected by focus on technology only. One of the issues brought by Oloixarac
involves the use of the latest technologies to infringe on the rights and freedoms of the people.
Tersely, she highlights the modern mass surveillance systems that have been applied by different
entities including governments and corporations. In reality, privacy is a right that should not be
infringed. People are enticed into platforms that will eventually lead to this fundamental right

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being infringed. For instance, many companies and governments have enlisted the services of
social media websites to collect data about the citizens. Although this practice is illegal in many
countries, it has continued unabated for decades. Tersely, this is one of the means that Oloixarac
argues that without the recognition of the current trends in technology and science, many people
will become victims of the systems that have emerged from different innovations and inventions
(Lamare 60). Furthermore, the accessibility of technologies that can access information of
numerous people very easily, the governments have turned against their principles of protecting
the rights of the citizens. Concisely, the governments have been responsible for ensuring that the
society cannot enjoy some of the inherent freedoms and rights. The ability of the government to
access information in unethical and immoral way means that the people cannot trust the new
systems introduced through technology. Precisely, the development of the latest technologies has
played a crucial role in ascertaining that personal information is made public. However, if the
society recognized the existence of such destructive technologies, it is in a better position to
ascertain that it is protected from the vices derived from such activities (Bohn 135). On this note,
the corporations and governments should act responsibly to ensure that their activities are not
mimicked by malicious people who would perpetuate mass destruction of the social virtues.
The recognition of multispecies hybridity will also be essential in the future steps of
human evolution. Although it is common knowledge that human evolution has reached the
summit, this could be a misconception primarily because of the different facets involved in the
evolution. According to Oloixarac, there is a huge potential for people to evolve further
especially when they interact with other aspects of life of instance. For instance, there have been
the growth of bacteria that affect people and have defied the current means of treating their
infections. Precisely, for people to survive, their bodies need to come up with the mechanisms

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that will fight these diseases. Furthermore, the environment is changing at a fast pace, which
indicates that unless there is further evolution, humanity may cease to exist owing to the fact that
current ecological degradation may not support people’s lives (Handfield and Zara 6). On this
note, the issue of hybridity is brought forward by the fact that most regions of the world are
experiences a variety of changes that may not support the lives of the people (Lulka 381).
Consequently, future steps in human evolution needs to be addressed to ascertain that people can
effectively live with the changes in the world. Oloixarac’s book has highlighted how
technological advancements can have a negative effect on the lives of the people. On this note,
the evolution prescribed by the multispecies hybridity is not limited to biological developments
but is also concerned about the interactions of people in different capacities. Having the ideal
knowledge of how to interact with different elements will have a positive effect on the wellbeing
of the people, which means that recognition of the hybridity in life will enhance the continuum
of life.
The human relationship with nature is also one of the issues that has been highlighted by
the novel. Evidently, people have adopted different relationships with nature. Depending on their
occupations, people can be beneficial or destructive to nature (Handfield-Hill and Zara 9). On
this note, the current interaction between humanity and nature is destructive. Different non-
human elements have been created for people with the help of various inputs from members of
the society. However, these elements are not sufficient to ensure that human beings can live
effectively with nature. In this regard, various human activities have led to the degradation of
nature because of the need for some members of the society to acquire riches and wealth.
Corporations have been noted to have a negative impact on the environment because of their
activities, which has led to global warming and climate change that have devastating effects to

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the community. Concisely, Oloixarac addresses this issue with the fact that the lives of people
are at risk because of their activities that do not promote mutually beneficial relationship with
nature. However, the technological advancements in the contemporary society has provided an
avenue where people can effectively nurture the nature, which will consequently ensure that
members of the society can enjoy a good environment (Wilkie 333). However, some community
members have not be responsible in dealing with different species, which has led to a situation
where nature itself is threatening the continuum of life. In this regard, it is essential for people to
ensure that they are aware of the negative repercussions that their dealings with nature can have
and how the relationship can be enhanced to come up with a fitting life on the planet.
The author also highlights how corporations will affect the multispecies hybridity in the
future. Succinctly, Oloixarac highlights about the operations of a company known as
Stromatoliton. The operations of the firm suggest that it has a stake in the future, the dark web,
the public and private life, and the international relations. Precisely, this is a huge undertaking by
a single company factoring in the fact that it will influence all aspects of life. Precisely, the
organization is a representative of the future where a few companies and individuals will have
the largest stakes in the lives of all people in the world. Already, there are some companies that
have so much influence on the lives of people around the globe. For instance, the big four
technology companies; Google, Facebook, Apple, and Amazon are controlling the lives of
billions of people around the world. On the other hand, the Big Oil companies influence a
significant portion of the world’s economies because of their control of the most essential source
of energy. In this regard, companies like Stromatoliton are likely to emerge in the future (Lamare
63). However, their interaction with the multispecies will determine if the world will be headed
to imminent destruction. Nonetheless, some companies have shown that they have the ambition

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of improving the lives of people. Some multinationals have engaged in corporate social
responsibility for individuals. These corporations have recognized the need to interact
responsibly with multispecies hybridity. Concisely, humanity will benefit immensely if
corporations and individuals interact favorably with nature.
Palo Oloixarac has highlighted how the future can be doomed because of the activities that were
conducted in the past or in the present. Concisely, she has presented how multispecies hybridity
has been affected by various factors that include application of technology and the interaction
between humans and nature. In this regard, the plot of the novel traverses fromthe19th century to
the future where companies will control all aspects of life and people will experience more steps
in evolution. Of essence is the need to ensure that people apply the hybridity responsibly to avoid
future catastrophes. For instance, Oloixarac argues that increased technological advancement
may lead to a situation where the people are not in a position to handle nature. Concisely,
individuals should ascertain that they use the current knowledge base and technology to ensure
the future is brighter for everyone. For instance, interaction with nature indicates that individuals
have sufficient information that will direct them to responsible use of the resources to safeguard
the environment and tame the imminent threat of global warming and climate change.
Furthermore, technology should not be used negatively in activities such as mass surveillance of
people, which infringes on their right to privacy.

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Works Cited

Böhm, Bernhard. "From heterogeneity to hybridity?: Working and living in arts-based
research." Practicing Art/Science. Routledge, 2018, pp. 125-141.
Hadfield-Hill, Sophie, and Cristiana Zara. "Children and young people as geological agents?
Time, scale and multispecies vulnerabilities in the new epoch." Discourse: Studies in the
Cultural Politics of Education, 2019, pp. 1-20.
Lamarre, Thomas. "Speciesism, part II: Tezuka Osamu and the multispecies
ideal." Mechademia, vol. 5, no. 1, 2010, pp. 51-85.
Lulka, David. "The residual humanism of hybridity: retaining a sense of the earth." Transactions
of the Institute of British Geographers, vol. 34, no. 3, 2009, pp. 378-393.
Oloixarac, Pola. Las constelaciones oscuras. Literatura Random House, 2015.
Wilkie, Rhoda. "Multispecies scholarship and encounters: Changing assumptions at the human-
animal nexus." Sociology, vol. 49, no. 2, 2015, pp. 323-339.