Sample Technology Research Paper on How Cell Phone Work

How Cell Phone Work
An enormous mystery that the cell phone firms have been keeping from the people is that a phone is just a radio. It is a sophisticated radio, but still a radio (Keith, 2004). A cell phone combines technologies together, primarily radio, computer, and telephone. Cell phones act as two-way radios, which send electromagnetic microwaves from one base station to another. These waves are sent via antennas. This is referred to as wireless technology. When a cellular phone is turned on, it discovers and connects to the nearby base station of a phone. Machines in the station verify if the cell phone is permitted to utilize the network system. A base station covers what is known as a cell and the phone can move between distinctive cells, but will just never communicate with one cell at once. This is the reason mobile phones are at times known as cellular phones.
All cell phones have unique codes connected with them that are utilized to identify the cell phone, the owner of the phone as well as the service provider. When an individual turns on the cell phone, it listens for a Signal Identification Code (SID) on the base station (Brian, Tyson, & Layton, 2000). The control channel is an extraordinary frequency that the cell phone and control station uses to communicate with each other concerning things, such as station altering and call set-up. In the event that the phone cannot discover any control stations to listen to, it understands it is coverage. When it accepts the SID, the cell phone compares it with the SID set into the cell phone. In the event that the SIDs match, the phone realizes that the cell it is corresponding with is part of its framework (Brian, Tyson, & Layton, 2000).
When joined with the phone, a cellular telephone can be used to make calls. Since the system realizes that the telephone is associated with that specific cell, it can additionally course calls to the cellular telephone. Frequently, the radio association with the cell is lost, for instance, when you go underground. This means the telephone cannot make or accept calls until the association is made once more.
Some computerized cell phones require a separate microchip known as the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), in order to function. The Subscriber Identity Module has data like the cell phone number and installment record that is required to make or accept calls. The Subscriber Identity Module may be supplied by the same organization as the cell phone or an alternate one. At times, one can change the network by using a Subscriber Identity Module from an alternate system, yet a few organizations do not need this to happen and they lock the cell phone with the goal that you need to utilize their SIM. This kind of cell phone uses GSM indicators.
Others have an extraordinary radio inside them that only makes cell phone calls when activated. When a person purchases an agreement, the network system provides a code for them, such that when they enter it into the cell phone, the cell phone will then make calls. It is always difficult to turn to a different network system’s code on this kind of cell phone. This kind of cell phone is called CDMA.
In the most fundamental structure, a cell phone is a two-way radio, comprising a radio receiver and a radio transmitter. When a person talks with another person on the cell phone, the cell phone converts the voice into an electrical signal that is then transmitted via radio waves to the closest cell tower. The system of cell towers then transfers the radio wave to the cell phone of the receiver, which changes it to an electrical signal and vice versa. In the fundamental structure, a cell phone works just the same as a walkie-talkie (Wang, 2013). In addition to the fundamental function of voice calls, most advanced cell phones accompany extra capacities, for example, web surfing, taking pictures, playing recreations, sending quick messages, and playing music. Most sophisticated cell phones can perform the same functions as a convenient machine.
A cell phone uses radio waves to broadcast and convert signals. A radio wave transfers digitized information or voice in the form of magnetic and electric fields known as the electromagnetic field. The rate of wavering is referred to as frequency. Radio waves convey the data and travel in the air at the pace of light. Cell phones broadcast radio waves in all bearings that could be ingested and reflected by the nearby objects before reaching the nearest cell tower (Wang, 2013). For instance, when the cell phone is set over an individual’s head when making a call, a notable parcel, over half, of the emitted vitality is absorbed into the body and head. In this instance, a great part of the cell phone’s electromagnetic field energy is squandered and it is no longer accessible for communication.
Cell phones have no less than one radio reception antenna, which receives or transmits radio signals. A receiving antenna converts the electric signals to radio waves. A number of cell phones use a single antenna for reception and transmission while others contain many receiving and transmitting antennas. A receiving antenna is a metallic component like copper built to a particular shape for receiving and transmitting particular frequencies of the radio waves. While older era cell phones have outer or removal receiving antennas, advanced cell phones hold more reception devices inside the gadget because of advanced wireless technologies. It is critical to comprehend that any metallic parts in the gadget, for example, the circuit board and the metal casing for the phone can interface with the transmission antenna and may contribute to the pattern of signal transmission.
A cell phone is a two-way remote communication gadget and requires both the inbound reception signal and the outbound transmission signal in order to work. The size of the accepted signal from the cell tower is known as the signal strength that is ordinarily shown by the bars on a cell phone. The connectivity between a cell phone and its system relies upon both signals and this is influenced by numerous elements, for example, the separation between the cell phone and the closest cell tower, the number of obstructions between them as well as the wireless technology, such as the GSM and CDMA. A poor reception indicates a long distance of separation or much signal intrusion between the cell tower and the cell phone.
To save battery life, a cell phone will change the quality of its transmitted signal and utilize only the least required signal to communicate with the nearest cell tower. Whenever a cell phone has bad connectivity, it transmits a stronger signal to connect with the cell tower, hence draining the battery faster. This is the reason why good connectivity reduces dropped calls and conserves battery life.

References
Brain, M., Tyson J., & Layton J. (Nov 14, 2000). “How Cell Phones Work.” Retrieved on 31 March 2014 from http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cell-phone.htm> 31 March 2014.
Keith, R. (2004). How cell phones work. Retrieved on 31 March 2014 from http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall04/keith/Works.htm
Wang, R. (Aug 19, 2013). Technology: How cell phone works. Retrieved on 31 March 2014 from http://www.pongcase.com/blog/cell-phones-work