Sample Term Paper on Intelligence-Led Policing

Introduction

Community policing and the intelligence-led policing are protection oriented and guided by the flow of information from the community and other relevant sources. Community policing mainly defies the underlying supposition that have shaped the policing of the United States for most of the 20th century (Alpert, Flynn & Piquero, 2001). The conventional law enforcement system of policing has always stressed on the independence of the law enforcement agencies from the communities that they are serving, the significance of a police specialized and dispassionate handling of all the citizens and the close link between the roles of the policemen and fighting crime. On the contrary, community policing fundamentally broadens the traditional duty and responsibility of policeman. It takes the perspective that the policemen and the people are co-producers of the policing services, mutually accountable for felony reduction and improvement of the value of life in the local neighbourhoods (Carter, Phillips & Gayadeen, 2014). In accordance with the viewpoint of community policing, the local police is supposed to offer the citizens with authorized access of the department’s decision as well as the policing making procedure. The neighbouring citizens are advised to speak out their concerns to the law enforcers and it is the responsibility of the police to carefully address such concerns. Whilst police specialization remains significant, this quality is not related with the police being detached to the local citizens. According to community policing, the law enforcers are supposed instigate regular personal contacts with the citizen on their beats and to in a friendly manner. Law enforcement and crime fighting is regarded as a very significant element of policing. This document therefore outlines the significant of intelligence-led policing plan (Peterson, 2005).

The significance of an Intelligence-led policing Plan

An intelligence awareness program for street police acknowledges that police on patrol have a strong potential of observing the circumstances and the individuals that they may point out as a threat or recognize the availability of criminal enterprise (Walker, 2001). The patrol police should be trained to frequently channel the information to the intelligence department so as it is included on the intelligence cycle for analysis. Same as community policing, this necessitates new roles for the patrol police and institutional flexibility to allow the police to explore new dimensions of criminal acts as well as community problems that customarily have not been a part of the patrol police’s roles. Correspondingly to be efficient, both community as well as intelligence-led policing needs reaction from information analysis, whether it is the analysis related to criminal acts or intelligence analysis, to be always informed of probable problems or threats that can be faced during their working hours. In this regard, the kind of information that the patrol police need from the intelligence department should be considered (Carter, Phillips & Gayadeen, 2014).

It is significant to improve the capacity of some of the protective services institutions to distribute information that is related to terrorism. The supporters of the intelligence sharing insist that the key aspect is sharing all, and not just data that is related to terrorism. The extensive sharing of the criminal related intelligence can significantly enhance the capacity of the law enforcement agencies to protecting the community safety (Alpert, Flynn & Piquero, 2001). To achieve this important requirement, it is significant for the law enforcement agencies to join in the establishment of the intelligence led policing plan. The plan will establish a coordinating council consisting of all the law-enforcing agencies within the community to manage the implementation of the intelligence led policing. It will also address the legal barriers to the effectual distribution of the crime intelligence among the known law enforcers.

 

Background

Initially, the role of criminal analysis was usually made of civilian workers who were trained in criminal mapping, trend assessment as well as other comparative studies. The other part consisted of the intelligence division. Elected police who were responsible for the gathering of intelligence on criminals, gangs as well as other criminal enterprise normally staffed this sector. Criminal analysis was initially mainly interested with location and crime type indices whilst intelligence was chiefly interested with the people (Peterson, 2005). The entities were housed separately from each other and never shared any kind of information. The disadvantages of this kind of separation of efforts and roles are apparent. The police on the intelligence sector opted to avoid sharing the data with the criminal analysts. This brought about differences between the crime forecasters and the intelligence officials. It is therefore important for the law enforcers to realize that the arena has transformed in a number of ways, especially, when talking about intelligence, criminal analysis and how the two relate to terrorism (Woods and Shearing, 2007). Past are the times when these two very vital aspects of law enforcement could operate in two distinct worlds. It is thus, important for the two to work collaboratively so that the local law enforcers can access pertinent, timely as well as actionable intelligence. Equally significant is the capacity of the local law enforcers to establish that one piece of the puzzle that can be included in the intelligence system for preventing a major terrorism occurrence in the United States.

Problem statement

There have been increased criminal activities because of lack of proper information sharing between the various stakeholders including the public, and all the law enforcement agencies. The community has continued reporting cases that are more criminal and the people are feeling safe anymore. A proper use of intelligence led policing plan will help the patrol police prevent the criminal activities.

Planning and direction phase

This is the initial stage within the cycle of intelligence. This is where the potential stakeholders clearly define their main concerns. This includes describing the key purpose and significance of intelligence gathering and identifying the necessary data needed for accomplishing their goal. The key purpose for this intelligence led policing plan is to effectively prevent the criminal activities within the community. To accomplish this task, there is need for public education, Public teaching is significant for efficient Intelligence led policing plan. The topics taught present a significant insight. The public is composed of numerous groupings and different public education programmes should be given to these constituent groupings. For instance, what does the institution want to achieve with a public educational initiative? Is the objective mainly meant to give the public information concerning terrorism indicators with the aim of ensuring security? It is significant to note that a particular objective should be linked with the community educational programme (Peterson, 2005). This kind of a programme can stratify the citizens as well for sharing particular forms of data to various targeted individuals. Who in the society should be targeted for this kind of program? The various divisions of the community may have distinct needs. For instance, since about 85% of the critical the privately owned segment, a particular public educational initiative could focus on issues that, owns infrastructure of the U.S. are associated with threats such kind of a narrowly defined community. On the contrary, a very diverse kind of public educational initiative could be directed towards the CPA specialists who can be taught to work as unpaid assistants during crisis. In addition, a different public educational agenda may be directed towards a specific ethnic group within the city. In this case, this ethnic will be sharing information that is concerned about the suspicious individuals and their acts (Ferreira, 1996).

Collection phase

Even though intelligence led policing should not be regarded as a gathering strategy, which denotes an unsynchronized effort aimed at gathering information just for the sake of obtaining it. The capacity for an agency to gather pertinent data is significant to intelligence led policing plan. Law enforcers should make sure that they have the capability of gathering information from sources such as public outreach, open sources, analysis of physical proofs, interrogations, surveillance among others (Carter, Phillips & Gayadeen, 2014). The frequent interaction that the patrol police have with the public in form of community policing efforts, vehicle checks gives then an exceptional capability of gathering information that can result in the identification of suspicious activities that are linked to criminal acts. In order to make sure that the information gathering activities are focused, they are supposed to be guided by analytical requirements, intelligences needs, investigative requirements as well as threat recognition. Information gathering concerning the environment, in which an institution polices, permits for the interpretation of the threats that occur within the area (Ratcliffe, 2012).

It is important for the personnel hat are in charge of intelligence operations to be formally trained on comprehending the intelligence operations as well as information distribution. There should also be regular channels of communicating intelligence to those in charge of decision-making. Intelligence products that are the outcomes of a formal analytic process should guide this kind of deliberate and tactical decisions. Such products should be able to effectively inform the different activities that the law enforcers are in charge for delivering. There should also transformation of the agency’s structures and responsibility for the purpose of ensuring that the intelligence related roles are resourced (Carter & Carter, 2009).the main element garnered from community policing should be the stress on a two way information sharing with the community. This kind of approach is not supposed to be restricted to the relationship between the law enforcers and the people they serve, but also among the law enforcement institutions. As a result communication malfunctions until September 2001, the need for the law enforcement to establish joint associations with h institutions within and outside their jurisdictions is vital. This kind of an association should be considered joint where institutions proactively and reactively share data. Studies concerning this kind of association exist though are being under used for the enhancement of information distribution.

For effective implementation of the intelligence, led policing plan and resourceful resource allocation law enforcers should work collaboratively and coordinate with other data-sharing partners. It is significant for the present resources to be controlled. Partner institutions as well as other stakeholders are also considered as the major component of intelligence led policing implementation (IACPUSA, 2002). They normally have an exceptional, strategic knowledge of the community that can provide useful information. Regular communications with all the intelligence led policing stakeholders is significant for success. Accessibility of a wide base of input both from the internal as well as the external sources can result in the reliability of the design for the intelligence led policing function. Interaction with the other law enforcement institutions as well as the citizens can result in the establishment of useful conduits for prospect data sharing. Collaboration, partnership as well as efficient two way information distribution are the major components of successful intelligence led policing (Ratcliffe, 2012). It is essential for the law enforces to regularly update or introduce a privacy policy that can address their data distribution processes. Such policy should plainly address how the intelligence led policing framework is used.

Analysis phase

The initiation of crime intelligence analysis is associated with the transformation of individual criminal acts into organized or group criminal activities. The effectual implementation of an intelligence led policing plan is significant to the police force capacity of combating terrorists group. Intelligence led policing can provide the institutions with the data necessary for effectual administration of its resources (Clarke, Ronald &John Eck, 2003). Whilst community policing mainly relies on improving the current resources, intelligence led policing needs some conventional resources inform of an analytic ability. This kind of ability can be established within an institution through the recruitment of intelligence analyst or by utilizing analytic ability of the fusion centres that are meant to support as well as facilitate information distribution for terrorism management (Carter & Carter, 2009). Regardless of this incorporated analytic function, the intelligence led policing reflects the revolution towards community policing whereby organizations are expected to refurbish their operations. Intelligence led policing should be created upon effective practices that are established by community policing whilst stressing on incorporated information or decision making that is based of proof so as to help the patrol police identify the emerging trends as well as the schemes in jurisdictional criminal acts. According to Woods and Shearing (2007), the intelligence led policing does not take up the duties of the police but it tries to improve the police operations so that they can be smarter through the application of their exceptional authority as well as capabilities. According to Ratcliffe (2008), the intelligence led policing is a broad adjustment of institutional functions that blends duties and operations with intelligence as well as analytic abilities. In addition, he notes various particular areas where the law enforcement agencies take part in intelligence led policing could divert from the operations mainly included in the law enforcement purview (Ratcliffe, J. & Guidetti, 2008).

Distribution phase

This is the stage where the appropriate gathered information is distributed to the potential law enforcement agencies as well as other appropriate stakeholders. With appropriate distribution of tasks, the products of intelligence led policing can help in the development of a strategic plan to address the existing problematic issues and prior preparation for the expected ones. There are various groups whose involvement in the intelligence led policing process can be useful for success including: The governmental, state, local and tribal law enforcers, whose functions include the establishment of regional relations and leveraging the current collaborations and equipments. The other group is the fusion centre corporation, whose functions include facilitating the development of a valuable corporation among all the levels of the state. This group has the capability of fusing and analyzing information from numerous local jurisdictions into a regional perspective and develop intelligence products that can support the effectual distribution of resources. The last group is the public sector, which is responsible for educating the governing authorities on the advantages of the intelligence, led policing plan in preventing criminal acts. The public sector also facilitates citizen awareness. This is for ensuring transparency during the intelligence led policing design and execution process seeking the citizen’s input and educating them on how the intelligence led policing can enhance community safety.

 

 

Evaluation phase

Intelligence information evaluation allows the law enforcers to develop a pro-active response to terrorists’ activities. It can help them in identifying and understanding criminal groupings that operate in their communities. Ones these criminal groups have been recognized and their activities identified, the law enforcers can begin to evaluate the recent trends in criminal acts to forecast, as well as hinder the progression of the perceived future crime. Intelligence led policing plan offers the knowledge on where to base decisions and choose the proper targets for examination (Woods and Shearing, 2007). Whilst the utilization of crime intelligence led policing plans is useful in supporting investigations, surveillance activities and the prosecution of crime cases, it also gives the law enforcers the ability of effectively managing resources, fund allocations and in meeting their roles for preventing criminal activities. Information technology is essential to intelligence distribution.  Specifically, in this era of complicated multinational criminal acts and terrorism, failing to share intelligence and information well restricts the efforts the community policing in combating it (Ratcliffe, 2012). The law enforcers are supposed to carry out a threat evaluation in order to entirely understand the nature of the threat within the society and understand the institution’s intelligence needs. Collaboratively, these aspects have a symbiotic association to help in the establishment of the public educational initiatives. Community educational initiative should also have a particular result that is intended. For maximizing the quality and amount of information given by the public, the law enforcers are supposed to give a framework of knowhow. The more the law enforcers can train the public, the stronger the response from the society is likely to be (Ratcliffe, 2012).

The positive results that the intelligence led policing plan can have on criminal prevention and law enforcement in general is of great significance. The intelligence led policing plan is supposed to deal with all the information, whether crime related on the local level or combat terrorism. There are various levels of the intelligence that suits the particular requirements. Whether it is planned intelligence targeting a very particular area and required or functional intelligence dealing with the identification of the criminal trends or the more serious issues and how to efficiently address such issues, the final area of intelligence is regarded as systematic intelligence and is involving of a broader look into the future with the hope of tackling the bigger issues in the long run (Woods and Shearing, 2007). It specifically deals with planning and policing issues and placement of individual as well as the involvement of the outside institutions that can help with the problematic issue at hand. Same as the evolution of community policing, the intelligence led policing seeks at reforming the current officers’ practices for improving the efficiency of the current processes.

Conclusion

Intelligence led policing is a system which brings intelligence and analysis of criminal information to the front position of the officer’s operations. It allows for the effective utilization of resources, the establishment of practicable plans and the successful conclusion of investigations. Community policing and the intelligence-led policing are protection oriented and are guided by the flow of information from the community and other relevant sources. It is essential for the law enforces to regularly update or introduce a privacy policy that can address their data distribution processes. Such policy should plainly address how the intelligence led policing framework is used. This is for ensuring transparency during the intelligence led policing design and execution process seeking the citizen’s input and educating them on how the intelligence led policing can enhance community safety.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Alpert, G. P., Flynn, D., & Piquero, A. (2001). Effective community policing performance measures. Justice Research and Policy, 3 (2), 79-94.

Carter, D. L. & Carter, J. G. (2009b). The intelligence fusion process for state, local and tribal law enforcement. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(12), 1323-1339.

Carter, J. G., Phillips, S. W., & Gayadeen, S. M. (2014). Implementing Intelligence-Led Policing: An Application of Loose-Coupling Theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(6), 433-442.

Clarke, Ronald V., and John Eck. (2003). Become a Problem-Solving Crime Analyst in 55 Small Steps.

Ferreira, B. R. (1996). The use and effectiveness of community policing in a democracy. Policing in Central and Eastern Europe, M. Pagon Ed., College of Police and Security Studies.

International Assoc of Chiefs of Police, & United States of America. (2002). Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A National Plan for Intelligence-Led Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels.

London, England: Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science.

Peterson, M. (2005). Intelligence-led policing: The new intelligence architecture. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Ratcliffe, J. & Guidetti, R. (2008). State police investigative structure and the adoption of intelligence led policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31(1), 109-128.

Ratcliffe, J. H. (2008). Intelligence-led policing. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.

Ratcliffe, J. H. (2012). Intelligence-led policing. Routledge.

Walker, S. (2001). Police accountability: The role of citizen oversight. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Wood, J. & Shearing, C. (2007). Imagining Security. Devon, UK: Willan.