Sample Term Paper on The Impact of Women during World War II


Background Information on the Second World War

Adolf Hitler’s desire to fulfill his personal interests on behalf of his country, together with his supporters known as the Nationwide Socialists or Nazis has often been regarded as one of the major causes that sparked the Second World War.  After the First World War, much of Germany’s land was divided and given to other nations. Its military and air power were reduced in terms of efficiency and size. Germany was compelled to take responsibility for the war and to pay all of the costs.  Adolf Hitler was held responsible the deciding the Agreement of Versailles for the state of Germany. He also laid the blame on the Jewish people and communists for Germany’s issues[1]. He then vowed to recover Germany’s success and the country’s lost glory and with this goal in mind, the Nazis set up a dictatorship soon after taking power. The first step included stripping off all Jewish people of their privileges. They murdered and locked up anyone who seemed to oppose Hitler’s government. Then they started to plan a war of revenge against other nations, which broke out in September in the year 1939 when Adolf Hitler requested German troops to get into Belgium. England and Italy were not amused and thus pronounced war to stop the German intrusion. A week later, on September 10, 1939, Canada announced war on Germany, as well. Canadians gave their support for England during the war because they thought that Adolf Hitler and the Nazis had to be ceased infiltrating other nations.

World War II became even more intensive and serious in the year 1941 when Adolf Hitler penetrated the Union of Soviet Socialists (USSR) Republic in July. In December, Germany assaulted the United States, prompting both nations into the war, making it one of Hitler’s biggest mistakes at the time. This is because Germany and its main supportive countries like Italy, known as the Axis, were not strong enough to battle the USSR, the United States, and Great England at the same time. However, it took nearly four more decades for the Allies to beat Germany, and Italy, and to free all the nations that the Axis had overcome. During those decades, Canada put in place many efforts that were considered significant during the Second World War. The country played a role in pursuing the German submarines in the Northern Ocean, with the Canadian bomber teams actively engaging those from Germany. Canada’s military army battled risky wars in Hong Kong, Sicily, Italy, and Holland.  This was supported by the commitment of its strong men and women who sacrificed to defend the country.

This research paper seeks to analyze the impact of women during the Second World War, with a focus on Canadian women in the labor market. This is based on the thesis statement that women played an essential role that impacted the outcome of the Second World War, but the period also marked the beginning of feminism in Canada. It will highlight the roles of women at the community level, the workforce, in the military, and in government. It will then give a critical analysis of how these roles influenced the course of the war.

The role of the Canadian women

When Canada joined the Second World War in 1939, there were 600 000 women employed in the domestic services industry. By 1943, because of the many men at war, 1.2 million women were mobilized to take up various roles in the workforce, including manufacturing, transport, finance, and construction. Women’s contribution to the Canadian labor market was of crucial importance during World War II. Moreover, the new roles of women employees led to the development of women’s rights in Canadian society. In 1943, the National Authorities of Women’s public outcry led to an increase of working income of up to about 80% and to considerations for the children and the service of women[2]. This implies that during the Second World War, the Canadian middle-class women instantly obtained the power and consent to get into the industrial sector in unmatched numbers. As a representation of a growing need for energy production in Canada and motivating women to seek opportunities as employees on the property front, the Canadian government commissioned photographers and war artists to represent women through artistic design in the sectors that were previously regarded as being uniquely dominated by men.

                        Women in Government roles and positions during the Second World War

Women also reinforced the war effort in a number of governmental institutions. By 1944, women held more than a third of municipal service tasks in areas that were formerly set aside for men.  About one million women proved their services and dedicated their time to the government during wartime. They were known commonly referred to as the Government Girls at that time. Some women provided intellectual roles that exposed them to managing categorized wartime information. Some provided in-depth analysis and growth strategies for war weapons production. A key program to create the nuclear arms, known as the New York Venture in the United States, was developed that heavily employed women. Much of the tasks that were done were new as they did not exist before the war[3]. By 1945, the size of the war had expanded that about 75,000 women were working in government positions across the countries that were actively involved. Many of the citizens were young women from small Southeast cities. These women were guaranteed solid income and told that their contribution would help towards ending the war. Civilian women proved helpful in industries. Women’s Air Corp (WAC) members did important, categorized intellect analysis. Other women proved helpful as researchers, directly supporting in the growth of the war and finding new ways of dealing with the rebels. Most of the women were not aware that they were creating the first nuclear weapons ever used in the war. They were essential and important to the success of ending WWII.

Women’s role and impact in the labour force

At this point, it is worth noting down the role of women in the United States during the War, as this greatly influenced what other women did in the other parts of the world, Canada included. During World War II, the U.S. market was transformed from the usual consumer production-oriented market to that of an army or military-oriented production. By the time, the United States signed up with World War II in 1941, the United States defense sectors were already churning out a vast number of airplane vehicles and bombs, weapons, shells supplies, and equipment. Most of the war materials were being delivered to Britain and other countries battling the Axis.

As the United States signed up with the battle, battlefronts multiplied around the world and the demands on war weapons production skyrocketed. Private sectors shifted their goals to the production of bombs instead of cars, parachutes instead of tights, and other war weapons instead of the normal Kleenex. And as men went off to war, six thousand women took their places on manufacturer floors and set up collections. It is worth noting that over the history of the world, wars have always had a considerable impact on women, which is also true for World War II. Before the war, many women had found it very difficult to obtain jobs and employment opportunities. Even though some of them were employed and absorbed into the job market, they were restricted to low-paying tasks.

Until the late 19th century, women in the United States, whether married or still in a single state, exclusively remained at home or were offering their services for unpaid labor in family enterprises. This role involved not only the proper taking care of their children and home management but also food- preparation and manufacture of many of the goods used in homes. In addition, most employers felt skeptical about hiring women, especially married ones, due to rules banning wives’ employment and because of the various adjustments that were required in the employment law so as to accommodate them in the market. Women were thus expected to adjust their roles in accordance to the country’s financial needs. The media embarked on this initiative of empowering women effectively. Propaganda played a critical part in influencing women’s contributions to the war. Paper prints, radio, and newspaper advertisements appealed to women’s patriotism to create energetic assistance for and contribution in the war[4].

The image of Rosie the Riveter remains the lasting symbol of these propaganda efforts, though many different pictures and catchphrases were used to mobilize the United States women. The government used loyal language, catchy catchphrases, and emotional appeals to encourage women to buy war bonds, maintain a constant home front, role in sectors and on plants, and are part of auxiliary army units and other voluntary solutions. Jobs and solutions appeared fashionable and glamorous, and propaganda, largely designed by the Office of War Information, emphasized that women would make better money supporting the war process than in most other professions. In part, due to the achievements of this propaganda, 6 thousand women signed up with the employees, and a further 350,000 signed up with army solutions between 1941 and 1945. Although most propaganda used positive language and pictures, women were also seen as potential threats to the achievements of the Allied war effort. Government pictures and catchy phrases warned women against any forms of talks that could be considered careless and advised them to practice self-censorship.

When the Great Depression struck in 1929, they were advised to work, deal with their loved ones and keep the tasks for men. This harsh financial scenario reemphasized a need for constant family members with a mother who was caring and devoted to the family lifestyle, coupled with a working father with regular earnings. The minority of women who had previously organized tasks were, therefore, forced to go back home and make way for men to be the breadwinners. However, with increasing industrialization during the 19th century, there was a greater requirement for labor and individual women gradually began to set off in order to role in sectors.

In the early last century, women began to fill sales and office roles and continued to expand their contribution in teaching and manufacturing roles. By the start of World War II, it had become acceptable for only one woman to role. The expectation, however, was that she would work for only a few years after completing her education and then would marry and spend the rest of her life looking after her family. In the interval between the 1920s and 1940s, women gained ground in some areas and lost it in others. During the Great Depression, women’s conditions worsened as they confronted men who disapproved of their competition. This interval, thus, conduced to an elevation of women’s family roles and displacement of many earlier gains in terms of occupation. However, the New Deal policy introduced quite a number of rules and measures providing welfare benefits for women and children and brought a rise in women’s impact in politics.

The United States market and The united state’s workers produced most of the war materiel the United States and some forty other countries used to battle the war:  324,000 airplanes, 88,000 bombs, 8,800 warships, and 5,600 merchant delivers 224,000 pieces of artillery, 2,382,000 vehicles, 79,000 landing craft, 2,600,000 device weapons, and 15,000,000 weapons. Unemployment, which had been high during the Great Depression, dropped from 9.9 % on the eve of Pearl Harbor to 1.2 % by the end of the war. Aircraft production improved from a prewar rate of 2,100 airplanes a year to nearly 100,000 airplanes in the mid-1940s. More than 70,000 deliveries were constructed during the war years. This improved production designed a huge requirement for work, exacerbated by the many United States men who left tasks to be a part of the U.S. army forces[5].

At the start of World War II, the social attitudes towards women roles were undergoing a major modification. As men were delivered overseas to battle, women were required to take over their tasks and start to provide for the country’s needs again. At this point, working mothers were admired and praised for their patriotism and heroism. On one side, the majority of working mothers had a difficult time earning their living, bringing up children, and maintaining domestic-hold simultaneously. However, they learned to be independent, had their own money, and did not need to explain what they had spent it on to anyone. In response to the need for work, many United States women signed up with employers for job opportunities. Paper prints of “Rosie the Riveter,” who symbolized women who proved helpful on manufacturer set up collections and popular songs persuaded women to fulfill their loyal duty and be a part of the war process. Urged by the government, a huge number of women who had never proved helpful outside the property took tasks from office roles to riveters and welders in sectors[6].

By 1944, 3.5 thousand women proved helpful with the six thousand men on set up collections. During the course of the war, over 6 thousand women signed up with the employees. Women who had already been working, usually in assistance and menial tasks, eagerly applied for the better-paying roles in war sectors. In Canada and America, the scenario was also changing. During the Second World War, the contribution of women in Canada and American societies changed dramatically. Canada and America required women to pitch in and assist in the war process by taking upon the roles that were traditionally carried out by men, and to provide their services in the army. Canadian women enthusiastically embraced their new roles and responsibilities and contributed to the achievements of Canada’s ‘Victory Campaign.

Canada had its own version of ‘Rosie the Riveter’, which served as the global symbol of the working women who labored in the various industry sectors to help towards the war. Women proved helpful shoulder-to-shoulder with men in factories, on airfields, and plants. They built parts for delivering airplanes and manufactured ammunition. They drove buses, taxis, and streetcars. This level of women’s contribution in the workplace was a first for Canada as women proved beyond doubt that they had the skills, strength, and ability to do what men could do. Out of a total Canadian and American population of 11million people, only about 600,000 Canadian and American women were absorbed in permanent employment opportunities by the time the war was beginning. During the war, their figures doubled to 1,200,000.

The war enhanced women’s independence, earnings, and pride. The opportunities and the war offered women a social trend of working outside their domestic territories and this was extended into the century. Even while working in sectors, women still had family obligations, including childcare. These additional obligations often totaled twelve hours on a daily basis. An average woman had to handle those obligations without any forms of convenience. The modern washing machines, automatic dishwashers, electric dryers, television for the children, playgroups, and carpools were not available at the time. In fact, family chores in 1941 typically took fifty hours a week or even more. Women also assisted in the war process in more ways that are traditional[7]. They did this by rationing meat, coffee, tin, rubber, nylon, and gasoline. Women saved and reused cooking fat, tin foil, soap, and nylon stockings.

Women’s Role in the Military

Women also provided their services in the military during the war because for the first time in U.S. history; women were allowed to offer to take upon non-combat responsibilities. Although the war was still limited for men, women offered essential, at the same time short-term, support functions within the military. Approximately 350,000 American women provide their services in the military, both at domestic and international levels. This they did through the various associations that had been formed during WWII for helping the women like; Women’s Army Corps (WACs), the Fast Women’s Source (WAVES), the Shore Secure Women’s Source (SPARS), the Underwater Corps Women’s Source, the Women Airpower Support Pilots (WASP), and the Army and Fast Nursing staff Corps. Prior to this period, women were not allowed to serve in the military in non-nursing tasks. For instance, women went as citizens in the Women Air Force Support and took part in flying the military aircraft to Great England and other war methodologies. By the time the war ended, more than 200,000 women had provided their services in the military.  Although women made essential progress in getting new skills, income, and independence, men took on control and supervisory roles[8].

The tasks were clearly defined and categorized as either “men’s work” or “women’s role,” and salary machines, despite the government guarantees to the contrary, discrimination against women was evident. As part of the military, women took up tasks such as gunnery teachers, radio providers, repair people, flight teachers who offered techniques, and other technical and nursing areas thus liberating up the men to war fronts. Women also had major roles as pilots although they did so as private contract workers. Women Air Power Support Pilots (WASP) was established in 1943. The WASPs provided and fixed aircraft, directed and served as cadet pilots, trained soldiers for antiaircraft gunnery, simulated bombing operations, examined new aircraft, split in new engines, and transferred government authorities. They were only given expert positions through the legislature regulation that was enacted in the year 1977.

During the war, 1,830 women contributed as WASPs and did crucial tasks that exposed them to danger hence leading to the loss of lives to some of them. Nursing was still an essential “women” wartime activity. More than 200,000 women took part in the Red Cross, a private agency that provided volunteer nurses. Of this number, an overwhelming majority of about 70,000 provided their services in the army and as health professional corps who were positioned both international and at domestic levels. Women in the military were brave, devoted, and sacrificed for their country. During the war, about four hundred and thirty-two women military servicewomen passed away, while historians record another 88 as having become became criminals of war.

Women’s roles at the community level

Women headed neighborhood efforts during WWII, including becoming employees of companies, rationing, and recycling, assisting in municipal protection, and assisting the war connection process, all of which affected the US success. Women signed up with offer companies during the war. One of the biggest was the American Women’s Voluntary Services, which allowed women to offer their services as fire workers, drivers of emergency ambulances, and offered emergency nursing aid. Women also offered to provide enjoyment for military employees as part of the United Service Organizations (USO)[9]. The USO Camp Shows offered enjoyment to military women at home and sometimes overseas. USO volunteers also constructed care offers and allocated them to soldiers.

Women, including those who signed up with the public area, were still responsible for homemaking, and as such, played a significant part in rationing and recycling of goods. Consumer goods and meals were limited or rationed in order to aid the war process. Metal, wheels, and rubberized toys were provided to produce arms, and waste paper was gathered to make explosives. Recycling limited materials was a loyal duty. Women also helped to conserve water, gave up sugar, coffee, dairy, egg, and butter, and created their own landscapes to grow their own vegetables. Nearly 100,000 women allocated discounts to regional rationing boards and many women willingly complied with the meals rationing program. Women also assisted in municipal protection. Women Civil Defense patrols were established to check out the shorelines for opponent veins and air designs, serve as air raid wardens in case of attack, and employ power shutdowns. Women further provided protection by increasing money for war ties to invest in weapon production.

 Critical analysis/Argument on the consequences of Women’s Involvement in World War II

No woman at the time was exempted from any forms of assault and exploitation. Some women were assaulted because they were related to governmental opponents, others were in governmental management themselves, or simply because they were at home when the military troops returned. With World War II over, women gave up their ‘male’ tasks to make way for their men. Government authorities and cultures that had motivated women to move into the compensated workers now provided a different perspective of women’s roles. In the nineteen fifties, knowledge, styles of compensated employment, religious values, and public behavior all emphasized that the most crucial part of the women’s position is in the home’. Her role was mainly to be a good spouse and mother[10].

From a tender age, family members, universities and other learning institutions, the church, and popular publications trained women to accept this perspective unquestioningly. Community predicted women to comply with the concept of lady as a homeowner. Most of the wedding vows had the women’s partner guaranteed to ‘love, honor and obey’ her husband while he guaranteed only to ‘love and honor’ his spouse. The law-strengthened women’s subservient part within weddings and society by usually supposing that women needed men to look after their passions. Many companies such as financial organizations, the NSW mailing service, and the public service would not employ married women in durable roles and predicted current women workers to step down if they did get married. By the early Sixties, many women were progressively exacerbated of anywhere paper ads divided tasks by sex, groups rejected them subscriptions, financial organizations declined their credit, and, most severe of all, they often were compensated less for the same role. Generally, women found themselves closed out of higher-paying and famous professions such as law, medicine, and finance. Although about 47 % of American women were workers in the Sixties, three-fourths of them worked in reduced spending and routine office, sales, or manufacturer tasks[11].

In England (and America) during the Second World War, there was a higher stage of transfer between different professions and sectors. For instance, less than 50 percent of the women who were machine and assembly workers in England in 1943 (47 percent) had been in these tasks before the war. The staying 53 % of wartime women machinists and assemblers had been serving as waitresses, laborers, domestic servants, or office workers. Women were sucked in huge numbers into some places and kinds of roles previously almost entirely done by men. For example, the variety of women applied in the technological innovation market increased from 97,000 to 602,000 and the percentage increased from 10 to 34 % of the workers in the market, between 1939 and 1943.

Some claim that the Second World War was an individuals’ war because category level-ling and public equal rights became an aspect of the war process.  The impact of the war on the systems of nationwide insurance, nationwide health, and family members’ considerations cannot be ignored. The war had a positive influence and change on the decisions made by the government to make discounts to the essential category and their organized work, which would have otherwise taken more time to achieve[12]. Supposedly, the war created the average individuals more essential. However, researchers have considered the success of the war in bringing about category equal rights differently. Some believe that the leveling of the category took position and was durable, while others claim that no leveling of category took the position – or that any changes that did happen were not indeed durable. Summerfield personally claims that while the essential category did become more different, it cannot be reasonably suggested that there was a leveling of category. She criticizes justifications based on changes in taxed earnings e.g. taxed earnings in 1950 were two and a 50 percent times the amount of taxed earnings in 1920 – because this does not consider how individuals also resided on earnings[13].

Summerfield also criticizes the lack of interest to those living below taxed income, which still mentioned for 50 percent of earnings earners in 1950. Summerfield suggested against using working category importance as an evaluation of the leveling of category, she calls interest to the difference in conditions under which guide workers and non-manual workers earn the same stage of in-come- particularly in terms of extra time, cleanliness available, right to vacations and retirement benefits, and the stage of job protection. Peace of mind in career may have been great during the war interval, but the variety of transfers/ lay-offs that happened post-war confirmed the security of employment for guide workers survived for only as long as the war the necessary process a particular type of production and therefore did not enhance the leveling of the category during or after the war[14].

Weiner further suggested that due to women’s wartime contribution, gender discrimination in a career almost vanished, and Summerfield went further, arguing that this had long-lasting effects confirmed by the accomplishment of equivalent pay and the approval of married women as workers. These opinions were later advanced during feminist history, and the difficulties experienced triggered discussion.  For example, the concept of durable benefits in the work market was refuted by researchers who understood women as military employees who were drawn from dependency within the labor market during the wartime problems and forced out afterward. This was associated with changes in the public plan and philosophy as they shifted more often. In my opinion, the challenge or shortcoming with this theory or opinion is that it cannot apply to all women. Six million women were in permanent career positions across the world; 80 % of them were employed in 1943. This implies that the majority of women in permanent roles in the Second World War cannot, therefore, be considered an aspect of a source mobilized for only wartime. Nevertheless, this perspective remains extremely sustained as a kind of feminist account. It informed a research study that was conducted in 1986 by Smith[15].

One-fourth of these women did take upon semi-skilled tasks and was compensated on the men’s salary range. However, even this minority of women doing ‘men’s work’ did not win durable access to these tasks. This was caused by the interaction of the passions of men business unionists and employers[16]. Male business unionists did not see it as essential for men and women to be handled as undifferentiated workers with identical passions Vis a Vis in matters of investment. The procedure of presenting women to male roles and positions was managed by employer-union contracts. Trade unionist arbitrators tried to use these contracts for ‘gate-keeping’, that is to secure their male members from the incursions of the competing workers. They were adamant that the contracts specified both that women in the male roles would receive equivalent pay and that these women would be eliminated at the end of the war.

Others have suggested that the one-time requirement surprise for women working during the war had an asymmetric impact on young and mature women. World War II posed a massive shock for women labor: with the average women contribution increasing radically from 16 to 22 % between 1941 and 1944, and among women whose spouses provide their services to the military, whose contribution rate surpassed 50 %. The employment helped only the women who were old enough to work during that interval. For young women who were still in university during the war, the impact was a negative one: as they grew into adults after the war and had to decide whether to enter the work market, they experienced increased competition. In addition to the men who came back from the war, in those days a huge variety of women from the war generation were still employed. This led to fewer requirements and reduced income for unskilled young women, who were populated out of the work market and selected to have more children instead.

Two causes assisted to bring the women’s activity to lifestyle again. One was the mass demonstration of common women. The second was a government initiative: the President is Percentage on the Position of Women, recognized by President Kennedy and advanced by Eleanor Roosevelt. The commission’s report outlined the issues of women in the office and assisted in making the proper systems of feminist activists, who lobbied the legislature for women’s regulation. In 1963, women had a milestone with the passing of the Equal Pay Act, which in most cases banned employers from paying men more than women for the same job. The legislature provided women another boost through the 1964 Municipal Privileges Act and evaluated the initially designed law that promoted gender.[17].

Some women proved through their hard work that they had abilities beyond the confinements of their conventional roles. In many places around the world, the period of nineteen sixties was classified by a critical evaluation of the political, financial, and public status quo. The pressure of wartime led to a rising proportion of mature, married women in the workforce. Moreover, first, during the war, companies to tap the supply of married women without overlooking the domestic philosophy provided part-time working arrangements[18].

After the war, family members renewed both ideologically the women’s career plan. The post-war psychoanalytical concept about the common dependence of the mothers and their children became a significant component of the ideological renovation of the family. After the war, governmental stability and financial renovation provided a restoration of traditional public forums. Where women had been enrolled to the labor market, they were encouraged to get married and, if married, they were prohibited from most professions. This is because women workers were to only serve as wives, and above all mothers, whose rightful places were in their homes where they were expected to be with their children. The proof of continuity in married women’s careers invalidated the military theory’s push-pull model of married women playing a major role in the course of the war.[19]

On the other hand, men and other business unionists also tried to avoid the categorization of women’s roles that would be compensated at the prices determined by the women and lost to men thereafter. Both parties argued based on strategies that were based on patriarchy and were opposed to investment. Employers looked for methods to evade paying women the same as men and to retain them in the working environment on a cheap labor basis. Companies absorbed women on the reasons just so as to portray their image across the nation as being caring and considerate of the women’s values and natural capabilities[20].

This period was marked by several series of public rallies and demonstrations, as most people expressed their personal desires for changes in the company employment rules and other concerns. In the midst of the global debate on civil rights, women embarked on a journey to have their rights acknowledged and to seek liberation from the restrictions associated with their conventional roles in society. The activity became known as the Women’s Independence Movement (WLM), and it became a power in Canada right from the period of late nineteen sixties onwards. Its followers were known as women’s liberationists or ‘women’s libbers’. Women in all the other countries organized themselves in groups to offer assistance for one another and to strategize for specific women pressing issues at the time in history. They saw themselves as equal to men in terms of being innovative and thus they focused on accomplishing equal rights in various areas including; the office and knowledge acquisition, in issues such as the choice of whether or not to have children, the accessibility to childcare services, legibility to borrow loans from financial organizations and other lending organizations, divorce, domestic assaults or sexual violence, proper family planning, and maternal leave.

The aspect of conscious awareness was an essential group activity. Through speaking with one another about these issues, women became more aware of the different methods by which society limited their freedom and ignored their rights. Many women also came to recognize that they were not alone in the issues they experienced. Other women wrote and shared their similar encounters. Women advanced their liberation by becoming members in groups and holding demonstration marches, playing bra-burning events, and participating in meetings so that they could become better advised about feminist issues. They forced governments to modify current rules and to make new regulations that would: make it unlawful to differentiate on the basis of gender, enhance the equivalent opportunity for women, and shield women’s rights[21].

Despite the failure of the ERA, the women’s activity would ultimately provide powerful changes in society. Since the nineteen seventies, many more women have gone through college levels and professions that are highly regarded in the Canadian society than did so in previous decades. Since the women’s activity started; situations with both the husband and wife working in a family setup are much more typical than they were in the nineteen fifties and sixties although a need for greater family member’s earnings may also be a factor. Employers started to offer workers options as a way of making the roles more suitable with family members’ lifestyles, such as versatile hours, on-site childcare, and job-sharing. Even though the women’s activity promoted awareness and enhanced the public perceptions and opinions toward women, there was still a significant earnings gap that existed between men and women in the labor market. The primary reason for the earnings gap was that most working women still held lower-paying tasks such as being bank tellers, management staff, schoolteachers, and nursing staff[22]. It is impressive to note that women have created the most impressive benefits since the nineteen seventies. At the beginning of the new millennium, women created up over 40 % of the country’s graduate students receiving either nursing or law degrees.


World War II has often been regarded as a major event in world history. This is because the war engaged the biggest military armies and the most dangerous weaponry that could be used in any war. Adolf Hitler is also remembered as a key figure during the war as he considered that the Germans were superior to all the other people. He worked to advance his interest in gaining power over the European nations. He also desired to remove everyone he considered substandard including the Jewish people, Gypsies among other groups.

Nonetheless, in line with the discussion above, World War II introduced various unmatched changes in the United States and in Canada. With about sixteen thousand of the country’s men employees offering military support at international levels, an incredible number of other potential employees were motivated to move into facilities of the industries to fill up the gaps left around the nation’s labor market.  The war adorned the current pattern towards an increase in the women’s role industry. The war also attracted women who were married, as they were more likely to keep the role industry after the war. The point at which many of these women re-entered the employment industry later brings us to believe that the significance of working might have been modified for these women. The major reason that prompted women to remain included the rewards for them and the cost of their family obligations that had increased.

Women’s positions were modified; they were provided job op-opportunities that were formerly withheld from them. There were primary ways that women put across their grievances that they considered crucial to the war. They did this through the press marketed through ads, handbills, and the famous film of Bermuda. Another was used was through the organization of the military where women military auxiliaries took up on the opportunities created by the absence of men. The Women’s Army Service Pilots (WASPs), for example, delivered new aircraft to military troops, transferred soldiers, and examined new aircraft. Another factor included the average women who battled the war from their local areas and landscapes. Visualizing their local areas as their own personal battlefronts, these women engaged in what researchers call domestic patriotism, where women used their ability towards the preparation, protection, sewing, and saving the products necessary to successful the war.

The end of the war introduced new difficulties and concerns for the United States, the Canadian communities, and women in common. Women had served very well in their new tasks by demonstrating their skills in building aircraft, bombs among others. Although grateful for the end of the war and the safe return of their men, most of the women were hesitant to give up the positions that they had acquired during the war. At the end of the war, the mass media and the government worked in partnership to advertise and promote the role of women in society. They were no longer aiming at the goal of winning the Cold War that was taking place within the Russian federation. Now the women’s role was needed at the domestic level.

The proven reality was that most women had the desired to keep their tasks and largely, this signaled their ambitions and sense proficiency that had considerably changed as a result of their success in men’s duties the labour market. The United States working women had different opinions on what their post-war positions would be. The society provided its admiration for a job well done as it tried to guide women back into their pre-war domestic areas. Advertisements for modern technology that wanted to promote the normal family way of life became popular. Women’s publications also focused on marketing the benefits of remaining in the domestic and looking after the post-war survivors and the family members. The government helped in promoting women’s early pension by reducing the resources for daily proper care. Historians have noted that the government desired to avoid massive cases of unemployment after the war, and to those who were in charge of designing the government policies, it was even worse for men to lack jobs.

After the war, both the rates of marriages and birth rates increased in most cities. From the time of the Great Depression saw only 18.7 registered births per 1,000 inhabitants, the rate improved to 24.5 by 1949. Marriage was considered trendy and fashionable. At this time also, owning a domestic was stimulated by the accessibility to GI loans and the benefits that had been gathered during the war. Women’s variation to the new positions designed during World War II created combined emotions in the Canadian communities and pressured many individuals to reexamine their opinions on women’s abilities.  The years that followed made it obvious that things would never be as they were prior to the commencement of World War II as women become more empowered and enlightened.


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[1] Donnelly, Karen J. 2003. American women pilots of World War II. New York: Rosen Publication Group.

[2] Nicholson, Virginia. 2011. Millions like us: women’s lives in war and peace 1939-1949. London: Viking.

[3] Anderson, Karen. 1981. Wartime women: sex roles, family relations, and the status during World War II. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press.

[4] D Acemoglu, “Women, War, and Wages: The Effect of Female Labor Supply on the Wage Structure at Midcentury,” [Journal of Political Economy, 112, No. 3 (2004), (Accessed March 21, 2014).


[5] O’Brien, Kenneth Paul, and Lynn H. Parsons. 1995. The home-front war: World War II and American society. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

[6] Zeinert, Karen. 1994. Those incredible women of World War II. Brookfield, Conn: Millbrook Press.

[7] Chandler, Malcolm. 2002. Britain in the age of total war, 1939-1945. Oxford: Heinemann Educational.

[8] Dreisziger, Nandor A. F. 1980. Mobilization for total war.

[9] Honey, Maureen. 1999. Bitter fruit African American women in World War II. Columbia [Mo.]: University of Missouri Press.

[10] Williamson, Gordon. 2014. World War II German Women’s Auxiliary Services. London: Osprey Pub.

[11] Greenwald, Maurine Weiner. 1990. Women, war, and work: the impact of World War I on women workers in the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

[12] Brayley, Martin. 2001. World War II Allied Women’s Services. Oxford: Osprey Military.

[13] Summerfield, Penny. 1998. Reconstructing women’s wartime lives: discourse and subjectivity in oral histories of the Second World War. Manchester [u.a.]: Manchester Univ. Press

[14] Greenwald, Maurine Weiner. 1990. Women, war, and work: the impact of World War I on women workers in the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

[15] Smith, Harold L. 1986. War and social change: British society in the Second World War. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

[16] Brayley, Martin. 2001. World War II allied women’s services. Oxford: Osprey Military.

[17] R Fernandez, and A Fogli, “Preference Formation and the Rise of Women’s Labor Force Participation: Evidence from WWII” (2004), (accessed March 21, 2014).

[18] Chandler, Malcolm. 2002. Britain in the age of total war, 1939-1945. Oxford: Heinemann Educational.

[19] McGraw Hill, “Women’s Changing Rights in the Post World War II” (2011), Womenschangingrights23.pdf (Accessed March 21, 2014).

[20] K McCusker, “Women in World War II” (2012), in World War II- McCusker.pdf (Accessed March 21, 2014).


[21] McGraw Hill, “The Feminist Movement,” The Politics of Protest (2010), 31 Politics of Protest/ch 31 sect 2 Feminist Movement.pdf (Accessed March 21, 2014).


[22] Brayley, Martin. 2001. World War II allied women’s services. Oxford: Osprey Military.