Should Animals be used in scientific testing?

Annotated Bibliography: Should Animals be used in scientific testing?

The question on whether animals should be used in scientific testing has been a contentious topic for a long time. The following are some of the scholarly articles that justify the use of animals in scientific tests.

Lapuste, T., Grosu, H., Popa, R., Popa, D., Dronca, D., & Georgescu, S. E. (2013). Researches concerning the situation of reproductive isolation and relatedness with immigrants of Furioso North Star population from Beclean pe Somes stud farm. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46(1), 109-112.

This article presents an investigation of the impacts of reproductive isolation and relatedness on Furioso North-Star (FNS) horse breed. In this study, Lapuste and others studied the evolution of horse breeds from the Beclean pe Somes Stud Farm. They found that the FNS exhibits some distinct evolutionary means that differentiate it from other horse breeds. Further, the researchers found the Romanian Furioso-North Star sub-category can be distinguished from the entire FNS breed as a result of low relatedness with other horse breeds. The findings of these and other studies assist the scientist in developing quality and disease tolerant animal breeds. What if animal testing is illegal? Stud farms would not be available, making it difficult for breed enhancement investigations such as Lapuste et al, (2013). Therefore, this article is a relevant resource to quote while proposing that animals should be used for scientific testing.

Lixandru, B., Pătroescu, V., Leonte, E. P., Dragomir, N., Pricop, A., Mâşu, S., & … Popescu, D. (2010). Research Regarding the Accumulation in Soybeans of Heavy Metals from Anaerobic Composted Sewage Sludge Used as Organic Fertilizer. Scientific Papers: Animal Science & Biotechnologies / Lucrari Stiintifice: Zootehnie Si Biotehnologii, 43(2), 93-97.

This article reports on an assessment of the composition of heavy metals on plants and its impact on livestock. The researchers analyzed the degree of heavy metals present in soybean plants, comparing it with the maximum allowable for animal consumption. Lixandru and others found that soybean plants fertilized with anaerobic composed sludge contained higher levels than the standard limit allowable in animal farm feeds (2010). Therefore, the research serves as a warning to the farmers against feeding their animals with fertilized soybean plants. This study relies on the data obtained from previous studies on the standard limits of heavy metal presence in animal feeds. If animals were not used in scientific testing, such limits would not be known. As a result, farmers would be feeding animals with any plants, some that may contain high levels of heavy metals. Heavy metals presence in animal feeds does not only pose health risk to animals but also to human beings, who would later consume animal’s products. Therefore, animal testing allows scientist arrest health risks to livestock as well as human beings.

Metallov, G. F., Levina, O. A., Grigoriev, B. A., & Kovaleva, A. V. (2013). Biologically Active Additives in Productive Sturgeon Diets. (English). Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Fishing Industry, (3), 146-152.

Fish is an important food in human diet due to its high source of Omega nutrients. Scientific studies have enabled understanding of fish metabolism, leading to enhanced cultivation and increased production. In this research, for example, Metallov and others study the biologically active additives in fish diets. The research furthers the present understanding of fish rearing.

Miseviciene, S. (2013). Impact of the Fields, Fertilized With Manure from Big Livestock Companies on Drainage Water Quality. Research for Rural Development – International Scientific Conference, 2161-168.

This article presents the findings of a research aimed at establishing the impact of adding manure to the livestock yards on water quality. Misevience used the water samples from the drainage of a large livestock yard that was fertilized to complete his investigation. He observed an increase in the content of Nmin and P2 O5 in the water that flows from the fertilized manure. This demonstrates the impact of livestock manure on water drainage, which in turn aids in farming decision making.

RNA interference: From tools to therapies. (2010). Nature, 464(7292), 1225. doi:10.1038/4641225b.

Animal testing has enabled scientists to develop medicines and medical therapies through the RNA and DNA mappings. This article reports on the development of RNA interference that has been facilitated by animal testing. Earlier, RNA was only viewed as a tool for testing gene functions. Recently, however, RNA is increasingly adopted in therapies.

Shariat, S. N., & Pourahmadi, A. (2013). Investigation, Isolation and Identification of Cutaneous Mycoses in Laboratory Animals. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 78.

In this article, Shariat and Pourahmadi investigate the presence of fungal pathogens on 20 laboratory-bred animals. This study aimed at establishing whether the fungal pathogens were present in animals that showed signs of fungal lesions. The dual researchers found that some of the animals that were suspected of having fungal pathogens did not have any while pathogens were present in animals that had shown no signs of scratches. This study is among several scientific animal testing that advance knowledge in biomedical sciences.

Tănăsoiu, I. C., Drăgotoiu, D., Drăgotoiu, T., & Marin, M. (2014). Researches Concerning the Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Bees Families during Autumn, Winter, Spring. Scientific Papers Series D. Animal Science.

This study tracks the production process of honey through the analysis of its chemical composition. It aims to find out how farmers provide bees with food supplements to ensure that production is not interrupted during winter and springs. This study benefits the farmers by ensuring that income from bee farming is not seasonal. If scientific testing were not allowed on animals, such studies would not be possible.

Tăpălagă, I., & Bochiş, F. (2012). Researches on the Public Mating Stallions’ Activity, in the West Part of the Country. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 45(2), 383-385.

This paper proves the importance of animal testing in improving the quality of animal breeds. In the paper, Tăpălagă and Bochiş analyzed the activities of Public Mating Stallions (PMS) for a period of six years. They also evaluated the importance of mating stallions’ services to the community. They found that public mating stallions have aided the impregnation of close to 500 mares. However, the public has not shown interest in PMS, as they are accustomed to the un-approved stallions. Allowing animal testing enables creation and improving of mating stallions, which helps in improving animal breeds.

Vicovan, A., Neacşu, C., Vicovan, G., Neacşu, M., Drăgotoiu, D., & Ghiţă, E. (2011). Researches Regarding the Influence of The Structure of the Ratio and of the Protein Level upon the Weight Increase and the Quality of Carcasses and Meat at the Lambs that are Being Fattened. Lucrări Ştiinţifice Scientific Papers, 100, 105.

This research is among the modern studies that seek to improve the quality of livestock to increase farm profitability. It introduces the economical benefits of scientific animal testing through increased productivity. In this study, Vicovan and others evaluate the influence of two levels of protein (12% and 14%) found on dry substance feeds on the fattening rate of lambs. They found that protein levels in dry fodder impacts the rate of weight gain in animals. These findings may be applied in determining the right foods for livestock

References

Lapuste, T., Grosu, H., Popa, R., Popa, D., Dronca, D., & Georgescu, S. E. (2013). Researches concerning the situation of reproductive isolation and relatedness with immigrants of Furioso North Star population from Beclean pe Somes stud farm. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46(1), 109-112. http://cabdirect.org/abstracts/20133391139.html;jsessionid=E6A6C40B3E8E49687B83D9CCA885FF9B

Lixandru, B., Pătroescu, V., Leonte, E. P., Dragomir, N., Pricop, A., Mâşu, S., & Popescu, D. (2010). Research Regarding the Accumulation in Soybeans of Heavy Metals from Anaerobic Composted Sewage Sludge Used as Organic Fertilizer. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies43(2), 93-97. Retrieved http://www.usab-tm.ro/fileadmin/fzb/Simp%202010/VOL%202/ECOLOGY,ETOLOGY_AND_WELFARE/Lixandru%20B%201.pdf

Metallov, G. F., Levina, O. A., Grigoriev, B. A., & Kovaleva, A. V. (2013). Biologically Active Additives in Productive Sturgeon Diets. Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Fishing Industry, (3). 146-152. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=Ru2014000174

Miseviciene, S. (2013). Impact of the Fields, Fertilized With Manure From Big Livestock Companies On Drainage Water Quality. Research for Rural Development – International Scientific Conference, 2161-168. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/93641013/impact-fields-fertilized-manure-from-big-livestock-companies-drainage-water-quality

RNA interference: From tools to therapies. (2010). Nature, 464(7292), 1225. doi:10.1038/4641225b http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641225b.html

Shariat, S. N., & Pourahmadi, A. (2013). Investigation, Isolation and Identification of Cutaneous Mycoses in Laboratory Animals. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 78. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/89588721/investigation-isolation-identification-cutaneous-mycoses-laboratory-animals

Tănăsoiu, I. C., Drăgotoiu, D., Drăgotoiu, T., & Marin, M. (2014). Researches Concerning the Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Bees Families during Autumn, Winter, Spring. Scientific Papers Series D. Animal Science. http://animalsciencejournal.usamv.ro/index.php/scientific-papers/232-researches-concerning-the-effects-of-supplementary-feeding-of-bees-families-during-autumn-winter-spring

Tăpălagă, I., & Bochiş, F. (2012). Researches on the Public Mating Stallions’ Activity, in the West Part of the Country. Scientific Papers: Animal Science & Biotechnologies / Lucrari Stiintifice: Zootehnie Si Biotehnologii, 45(2), 383-385. http://spasb.ro/index.php/spasb/article/view/411

Vicovan, A., Neacşu, C., Vicovan, G., Neacşu, M., Drăgotoiu, D., & Ghiţă, E. (2011). Researches Regarding the Influence of The Structure of the Ratio and of the Protein Level upon the Weight Increase and the Quality of Carcasses and Meat at the Lambs that are Being Fattened. Lucrări Ştiinţifice Scientific Papers, 100, 105. http://balnimalcon.nku.edu.tr/romanya%282011%29/1/Vicovan.Adriana.pdf