Snapchat: A Theoretical Approach to the Dynamics of Commerce in Saudi Arabia
The increasing prevalence of social media use in recent years especially among the youths brings the impression that a lot can be accomplished through social media. As evidence of this, the uses of social media have also increased through the years. Initially, social media networks such as Snapchat, Face book; Twitter and MySpace were used mainly as platforms for interaction in social settings through sharing of personal information such as pictures and status updates. However, with time, social media platforms are increasingly being used by corporate entities to advance business objectives through practices such as advertisement. The Emergence of E-commerce has made the use of social media imperative as business entities and governments market and conduct business dealings online. In Saudi Arabia, like every other country, the use of Snapchat and other social media platforms in commerce has increased significantly, especially between 200 to the present days.
Statement of the Problem
People use the social media platforms to interact with each other and to and offer online services to those who rely on them. Past studies have independently examined the implications of social media on various aspects of business operations, giving the impression that social media is indeed becoming an inescapable part of commercial operations. However, there is still need to explore the extent to which social media can be applied to influence commerce in Saudi Arabia as fewer studies have been aimed at this. The importance of Snapchat and other social media channels in commerce make it necessary to focus the present study to Saudi Arabia. Through this, it will be possible to understand commercial progress in the country and to subsequently recommend strategies for enhancing the applicability of snapchat to various contexts in the country. These are the factors that lead to the need for the present study.
AlGhamdi et al (2012) reported that Saudi Arabia has the fastest growing country in the ICT sector within the Arab region. The E-commerce sector has not been left behind as the ICT sector grows in Saudi Arabia. However, there are various factors that are still considered to influence the participation of various business systems in E-commerce. In particular, challenges such as limitations of online payment options and lack of clarity in legislation for online commerce have limited the application of E-commerce in the retail sector. The challenges notwithstanding, accessing clients has been made easier in various industry aspects. In fields of manufacturing, distribution as well as consumption, marketers are intensively using online forums in Saudi Arabia and beyond. This is where various social media platforms come into play.
Social media fosters distribution of information among citizens making it a crucial tool for marketing. The findings presented by Linke and Zerfass (2012) indicate that the social media is effective in enhancing corporate culture and a participative environment in the corporate world. Snapchat, like many other social media platforms has continued to be used to foster communication between clients and business personnel. In particular, E-commerce can be said to have been strengthened and enhanced through the combination of social media marketing strategies and online payment options. In spite of this growth, there have been few studies that focus on the aspect of Snapchat and other social media use in commerce within Saudi Arabia. This makes it necessary to carry out such studies in order to find out how the country has progressed, particularly in social media use in commerce and subsequently recommend how Snapchat can be used to enhance business growth and profitability.
To create an understanding of the subject of study, a review of a few pieces of literature was conducted. The ensuing section provides an overview of six of the pieces reviewed for the study. The discussion also includes a mention of each of the articles’ significance to the study.
- AlGhamdi, R., Nguyen, J., Nguyen, A. and Drew, S. (2012). Factors Influencing E-Commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia: A Quantitative Analysis. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 3(2): 83- 100.
- The purpose of the study – The study was conducted as a follow up to an earlier study by AlGhamdi, Drew and AlGhaith (2011). The previous study found out various factors that inhibited or enabled the growth of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. In the present one, AlGhamdi, Nguyen, Nguyen and Drew focused on determining the quantitative strength of each of the mentioned factors in inhibiting or enabling online retail activities.
- Research questions – The researchers, while conduction their study, began from the basis of the question:
- Why are retailers in Saudi Arabia reluctant to adopt e-commerce as a trading channel?
- Hypothesis –From the introduction given by the researchers, it can be said that lack of acceptable online payment strategies is the key limiting factor for retail companies.
- Theoretical framework- Although the study does not clearly indicate the theoretical framework upon which the entire work is founded, it can be said that it is based on grounded theory since information collected is used to construe an expected outcome. The use of information especially from the study by AlGhamdi, Drew and Al-Ghaith gives it sufficient foundation for a grounded theory application.
- Methods Description – In the study, a paper survey strategy was used. The attributes described formerly in AlGhamdi, Drew and Al-Ghaith’s work were used as the baseline for the latter study. In particular, the factors presented in the findings of the past study formed the basis for the present study. A total of 200 paper questionnaires were distributed to retail centers within Jeddah and Al-Baha. Participants were selected using the snow-balling approach where those first approached were requested to recommend other potential respondents. A response rate of 40% was received giving only 80 viable forms.
- Findings – research findings indicated that various factors affect the adoption of E-commerce by retailers. Some of the factors include limitations of online payment options, absence of quantitative indications of relationship strengths involved in e-commerce and lack of legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia (AlGhamdi et al., 2012). It was also found that greatest inhibitors of online retailing are outside the control of the practicing retailers. Inhibitors such as lack of legislation, customer behaviors and poor ICT infrastructures were ranked at 5, 2 and 1respectively and were found to be outside the control of the retailers. On the other hand, change resistance and lack of experience which were ranked at 7 and 2 respectively and found to be within the control of the retailers.
- Conclusion – The authors conclude that although e-commerce is on the rise across the world, retailers in Saudi Arabia are mainly hampered from successful engagement due to various factors (AlGhamdi et al., 2012). Strongest enablers and inhibitors were factors that relate to the attributes of innovation such as the relative advantage of online channels in comparison to traditional retail procedures and evidence of success from first adopters.
- Comments/criticism – The articles uses reliable sources of information. The combination of secondary approaches to study with the quantitative approach to primary research ensures that the information presented is complete and accurate. Its focus on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia makes it a reliable source of information for the present study. Moreover, it provides information on aspects that can be used to market social media use in retail. For instance, through understanding that evidence of success is a prerequisite to adoption, an organization can be made to access testimonials from other companies that have used social media in their retail activities through marketing to be evidence of success.
- Ideas for further study – The study used surveys and secondary methods to collect information. However, there is still an opportunity for engaging in further research on the place of various social media platforms in e-commerce.
- Annotation – AlGhamdi et al (2012) conducted the research to determine why many retailers in Saudi Arabia appear reluctant to engage in E-commerce. Through a mixed method approach, the researchers found out that various factors influenced the decision to engage in e-commerce. The study bases its foundation on the factors mentioned in another study by AlGhamdi, Drew and Al-Ghaith (2011) as inhibitors and enablers of online retailing practices. However, as opposed to the previous study, the present one adopts a quantitative approach to determine the strength of the factors mentioned in the previous study. The results indicate that the strongest enablers and inhibitors are mainly out of the direct control of the retailers. The study is relevant to the present study due to its focus on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia in that some of the findings can be used for policy creation to enhance social media use even in the retail sector.
- AlGhamdi, R., Drew, S. and Al-Ghaith, W. (2011). Factors Influencing E-Commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Analysis. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 47(7): 1-23.
- The purpose of the study – The paper explores the issues that influence either negatively or positively the decisions of retailers in Saudi Arabia to use online procedures. The study is founded on the background that the rest of the world, especially the west is increasingly using online platforms for retail activities including marketing, pre-and post-sales activities. At the same time, the adoption of online retailing has been significantly slow in Saudi Arabia.
- Research questions – The implied research questions in the study were:
- What are the negative and positive factors that influence online retail in Saudi Arabia?
- Hypothesis –The hypothesis of the study is founded on the research conducted by previous studies. AlGhamdi, Drew and Al-Ghaith posit that the application of online retail in Saudi Arabia is hampered by factors such as socio-cultural limitations, legislation; privacy issues; rules, regulations and procedures.
- Theoretical framework- The study was based on a grounded theory where information from past literature was compared to the questions to be answered. As such, the authors managed to develop a framework based on various attributes associated with online retail and innovation. Through the developed framework, it was possible for the researchers to develop the best methodologies for the study. From the basis of the grounded theory, it was also possible for the researchers to make a conclusion based on their research questions and hypotheses.
- Methods Description –The authors carried out the research using a semi- structured qualitative approach aimed at determining the extent of online retailing adoption in Saudi Arabia. The interviews were design based on the principles of adoption of innovation. To accomplish the objectives of the study, it was determined that five attributes of innovation such as the type of innovation (whether compulsory or optional); perceived innovation attributes; communication channels in use; nature of social networks and extent of promotion activities for change efforts. The authors used these attributes to design the interview questions. The interviewees were also given additional time to add anything to the given answers after the interview sessions. A total of 16 interviewees were reached although the researchers initially intended for the interview to have between 20- 30 respondents. This was not achievable due to the low response rates experienced. All the 16 participants were retail decision makers such as managers, owners and directors of different retail firms in Saudi Arabia.
- Findings –based on the attributes developed in the research, it was determined that some of the factors that contribute to low adoption of online retail in Saudi Arabia include: delivery issues; challenges in demonstrating competitive advantage via online procedures; cultural differences among people; availability of few online payment options; lack of trust; lack of E-commerce legislation in Saudi Arabia and poor ICT infrastructure. The available payment options are mainly the use of credit cards yet people are less willing to give their credit card information to strangers as compared to bigger online retailing companies such as Amazon (AlGhamdi et al., 2011). On the other hand, the enablers include government support, fast growing ICT infrastructure and innovation of reliable and trustworthy payment options.
- Conclusion – The study results in the revelation of several key factors that negatively impact the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Similarly, various factors were identified that foster the use of online retail procedures in Saudi Arabia. Impediments relate to cultural, technical and business issues while the factors that aid in the development of E-commerce in retail include government support, educational and awareness programs among others.
- Comments/criticism – The article focuses on the retail context in Saudi Arabia, highlighting the different aspects of practice that are faced in the country. Based on the study findings it can be deduced that some of these factors that inhibit online retail processes can be changed through education. By recognizing impediments such as difficulty in developing strong competitive advantage through online practices, it is possible to realize that the use of social media platforms such as Snapchat and Face book to promote companies can help to achieve this objective. As such, the study by AlGhamdi et al is relevant as it gives a premise for the use of social media to overcome such challenges involved in e-retailing.
- Ideas for further study –The limitations mentioned by the authors in the study include the unwillingness of retailers to engage in the study and absence of up to date information on the subject. These give an outlook of potential research topics that could be conducted. For instance, expanding the scope of the present research could help to obtain greater information on the application of social media in the online retail platform.
- Annotation – AlGhamdi, Drew and Al-Ghaith (2011) conducted the study with the objective of determining negative and positive factors that influenced online retail engagement. Through the use of a semi structured interview strategy, they managed to highlight factors such as lack of legislation and educational programs as inhibitors and promoters of online retail trade respectively. Greater information could be achieved if the limitations of the research, including lack of willingness to participate in interviews are addressed through collaboration.
- Linke, A. and Zerfass, A. (2013). Social Media Governance: Regulatory Frameworks for Successful Online Communications. Journal of Communication Management, 17(3), 270- 296.
- The purpose of the study – The study was conducted with the objective of introducing the concept of social media governance as a way of accelerating social media establishment in communication practices within the German context. The study purpose was derived from the assertion that there are discrepancies between the annotated social media relevance and the actual application of social media in communications.
- Research questions – The study was conducted based on the following questions:
- How common are social media activities in organizations?
- To what extent are social media strategies and skills developed by public relations personnel?
- What regulatory frameworks exist in social media use today?
- Do correlations exist between structural frameworks for social media use and the resultant communications practices in organizations?
- Hypothesis – Based on the research questions, the hypotheses presented by the authors include:
- H1: Social media use in PR has a short history and not more than quarter of the organizations use it.
- The skills developed by PR professionals in social media use are either low or medium.
- Lack of experience and knowledge are the factors that contribute to ineffective social media use in organizations.
- Only minority organizations have well developed social media strategies.
- Theoretical framework- The authors based their study arguments on the structuration theory. According to the theory, actions of individual agents can only be successful if all those involved resort to common stock of rules and regulations.
- Methods Description –The study was conducted within the settings of Germany through an online survey process. The survey questionnaire consisted of 20 questions derived from empirical evidence as well as the hypotheses developed for the research. The participants were invited personally via online means and also received reminders on the same. A total of 1007 questionnaires were completed by participants who were communications professionals in private companies, joint stock companies, associations and public sector organizations and non- profit organizations. Social media activity was computed using an index which was derived from the sum of networks, social media tools and applications. The data was then analyzed using SPSS software (Linke and Zerfass, 2013).
- Findings – The results indicated that more than half of the companies represented in the survey participated in social media use. 26% of the organizations joined social media in the last 12 months, 22% have been active for more than a year while more than 6% had more than 3 years of experience in the use of social media for communications purposes. Most of the professionals also reported that they were not very competent in the use of social media, especially in the concept of technical expertise. Only about 41% of the respondents claimed to be competent in various aspects of social media. It was also established that the existence of a regulatory framework resulted in better social media use outcomes.
- Conclusion – The authors concluded that social media governance is a crucial part of social media communication. Subsequently, the presence of these structures leads to positive effects on the levels of skills, enhanced levels of activity and effective strategy development (Linke & Zerfass, 2013).
- Comments/criticism – The article emphasizes how social media communication coupled with effective social media governance can result in positive outcomes in participation and skill building. The use of strategies such as online marketing has increased in Saudi Arabia and across the world. This means that strategies have to be laid down for ensuring that social media use is beneficial to an organization. As such, the findings for this study could be extrapolated to Saudi Arabia to determine ways through which organizational communication can be improved through effective social media governance. This makes the study relevant to the research being conducted.
- Ideas for further study –The research authors mentioned some of the limitations including invitation of participants by e-mail and the confinement of the study within Germany. This means that the selection of participants was not random hence may have been biased. Because of this, it is recommended that future studies on a similar subject should be directed towards exploring social media strategies.
- Annotation – Linke and Zerfass (2013) based their study on the objective of determining how social media governance could be used to accelerate social media communication practices in Germany. According to their study, social media governance is described as the various practices and strategies used to regulate the actions of organizational members within the social webs. The definition was derived from other forms of governance such as the corporate governance. The study was conducted based on qualitative online surveys administered to corporate bodies. The study findings showed that although most corporate bodies engaged in social media communication, they did not apply social media governance yet achieved great outcomes in participation and skill building. As such, the same could be applied in commerce to achieve similarly exceptional results.
- Makki, E. and Chang, L. (2015). Understanding the Effects of Social Media and Mobile Usage on E-Commerce: An Exploratory study in Saudi Arabia. International Management Review, 11(2): 98- 109.
- The purpose of the study – The study was conducted by Makki and Chang with the objective of exploring how social media and mobile use have impacted the E-commerce sector in Saudi Arabia. The purpose was achieved through the study of consumer behavior and e- commerce websites in the country.
- Research questions – The study aims at answering the questions:
- In what aspects of e-commerce do social media and mobile usage play an important role in Saudi Arabia?
- What are the gendered impacts of social media communication on consumer purchase decisions?
- Do the E-commerce websites in the country use mobile and social media platforms?
- Hypothesis –The paper does not contain explicit hypotheses but they can be drawn from the arguments presented in the paper.
- Theoretical framework- The study, like the previously discussed research was based on a grounded theory in which the researcher based his arguments on existing information with an objective of exploring the effects of social media and mobile usage in e-commerce within the Saudi Arabian context.
- Methods Description –The study was founded on a qualitative approach which involved the distribution of online survey materials through various social media platforms. The basis for the choice of social media was that many people used social media and mobile platforms for communication. Additionally, the subject of the study entailed social media to a large extent hence the use of social media was deemed plausible. A total of 1021 survey responses were obtained through various social media platforms. Majority of the respondents (more than 75%) were between 18- 35 years old and were educated. The results were analyzed through website profiling where websites were created for each of the e-stores that were represented in the survey.
- Findings – The results indicated that many people in Saudi Arabia used smart phones to access various social media sites. The use of smart phones was reported to have increased significantly in the recent years with women leading in the use. On the aspect of social media platforms, it was also established that more women used instagram while men were more likely to use other forms of social media such as twitter and Face book. As such, it was also ascertained that social media use influenced purchasing decision making. Social media platforms were also recommended as they offer other service as well.
- Conclusion – The author concludes that social media can be a very crucial tool in E-commerce. Based on the findings, social media can be a point of judgment on whether to purchase a product or another. Through the use of multiple social media platforms, organizations can be able to build their communication capacities with stakeholders. Moreover, social media enhances product promotion and marketing and can help increase customer awareness besides building strong rapport with the customers.
- Comments/criticism – The combination of primary and secondary research information the article brings out the impression of a conclusive study. The findings can be used by organizations to plan their social media use strategies in order to accomplish e-commerce and online marketing objectives. Since the study focuses on the concept of social media, it can be said that it is very relevant to this research since it answers some of the research questions.
- Ideas for further study: – the study was conducted within an appropriate scope. Moreover, the consideration of social media use in E-commerce makes it an excellent predecessor for other studies in the area. It is therefore recommended that other should put in place studies that assess exact impacts and to quantify the impacts of social media e-commerce use.
- Annotation –Makki and Chang (2015) explore the effects that social media and mobile usage have had on e-commerce within Saudi Arabia. From the findings, the authors explain that social media use can result in enhanced communication, better customer relationships and increased business awareness among other outcomes. Because of this, it is recommended for businesses to adopt its use in E-commerce not only for marketing but also for actual online transactions. Face book and instagram are the leading social media platforms in use within Saudi Arabia. The authors used a qualitative research approach based on online surveys administered via social media platforms.
- Oxera LLP (2015). Benefits of Online Platforms. Prepared for Google.
- The purpose of the study – Oxera LLP was contracted to conduct a study on behalf of Google. The objective of the study was to analyze the role played by online platforms in aspects of transparency, competition and business use. The main purpose of the study therefore included to define online platforms and to assess how individuals and businesses could interact with such platforms and the benefits they could gain from them.
- Research questions – To achieve the objectives of the study, the author focused on the following research questions.
- How are online platforms defined?
- What is the value of online platforms to European businesses?
- Hypothesis – The author does not clearly indicate what their hypothesis is. However, it can be deduced that the author portrays online platforms as various networks that bring people together and are varied in nature.
- Theoretical framework- The study was based on a taxonomic approach to discussing online platforms. The approach involves outlining specific roles played by the platforms in communication and in business.
- Methods Description –The study author accomplished his objective by conducting surveys through the participation of consumers from countries such as Germany, Poland and Singapore. The survey questionnaires were administered online. The results were combined with secondary approaches to study. The author used a total of 1500 survey results obtained from the respondents in the previously mentioned countries. The design of the survey questions was such that they provided empirical evidence on aspects such as: the use and frequency of using online platforms among consumers; the use of multiple or single online platforms and the barriers experienced in using more than one platform; the strength and benefits perceived by consumers and businesses in the use of online platforms and the reasons against the use of online platforms (Oxera LLP, 2015).
- Findings – From the study, it was confirmed that communication and information online platforms are the most commonly used by consumers and businesses. However, the frequency of use of such platforms varies across countries yet patterns are similar within the countries in which the survey was conducted. More than two thirds of the consumers used at least two of the mobile applications for communication and information purposes. From the perception of consumers, some of the benefits reported included increased business engagement, higher transparency, and improved convenience and enhanced relationships (Oxera LLP, 2015). For businesses, online platforms reduced the implications of geographic barriers, enhanced marketing outcomes, changed cost structures and impacted other areas such as funding, e-commerce and recruitment.
- Conclusion – The author suggests that although there is no singular definition of online platforms, they entail different applications and websites which play crucial roles in bringing businesses and people together. The variety of characteristics associated with platforms such as Whatsapp, Face book, twitter and various websites makes it difficult to collectively define them yet they play almost similar roles in e-commerce.
- Comments/criticism – From the study outline, the author did an impressive work through organization and clarity. The report is conclusive as well as detailed in spite of the lack of depth in some of the explanations. The focus maintained on online platforms and consideration of various social media networks makes this work an exemplary piece of evidence in the progressing study. As such, information could be obtained from the study by Oxera LLP and used to answer the research questions in the present research, a factor which makes Oxera LLP relevant to the study of focus.
- Ideas for further study – Although the study focuses on a range of social media platforms as well as on various websites, it could have been more relevant had it been carried out in the Saudi Arabian context. However, since the authors suggest that the patterns of online media use are similar across different countries, the results obtained herein could be scaled up to match the Saudi Arabian e-commerce context.
- Annotation – Oxera LLP (2015) aimed at determining what online platforms entail and how they impact businesses. The outcome indicates that although many people do not have matching definitions of online platforms, they recognize their impacts on e-commerce. Snapchat and other social media platforms play crucial roles in businesses as outlined. Some of the impacts on businesses include influence on marketing, e-commerce, recruitment and enhanced customer interactions. Similarly, consumers also reported benefits such as enhanced business interactions, higher transparency and improved business engagement among others. The author therefore concludes that online platforms are effective at bringing people and businesses together.
- Sait, S., Al-Tawil, K. and Hussain, S.A. (2004). E-commerce in Saudi Arabia: Adoption and Perspectives. Arab Journal of Information Sciences, 12(1): 54- 73.
- The purpose of the study – The objective of the study was to determine the educational, social and business implications of social media. The study was designed to be an effective tool for policy makers as well as those with business interests in Saudi Arabia.
- Research questions – to achieve the study objective, the authors focused on the following research questions.
- What are the behavioral responses to and infrastructural support for the adoption of e-commerce in social media?
- Hypothesis – The paper was authored under the hypothesis that e-commerce is growing in Saudi Arabia due to the strong internet connectivity.
- Theoretical framework-The authors applied the theory of planned behavior as the foundation of the study. In addition to this, Roger’s theory of Diffusion of Innovations was also used to bolster the arguments presented by the authors. The theories both describe consideration of attributes of an innovation in explaining its benefits to the recipient. In this regard, the study focuses on attributes such as compatibility, trial ability, observability and the relative advantage among others.
- Methods Description – the study was conducted using a combination of secondary approach with primary procedures such as interviews and surveys. These methods were founded on the models of theory that have been previously mentioned. A web based survey was used to collect information on the attitude of different users in the adoption of e-commerce. A total of 4000 survey questionnaires were administered online and consumers willing to report on their personal experiences and attitudes were welcomed randomly to participate. The survey was designed based on the assumption that inclination of the internet on initiatives such as online banking and e-commerce could encourage consumers to engage more. The model included three characteristics derived from the diffusion of innovative theory which include complexity, compatibility and relative advantage.
- Findings – The findings realized by Sait et al indicate that the inclination of consumers towards online banking and e-commerce was indicative of the perceived relative advantage of the two aspects of internet use in business. Moreover, the online experience of the consumers also affected the inclination to rely on e-commerce and mobile banking, with most respondents who used the internet frequently reporting that e-commerce made life easier. It was also confirmed that user confidence regarding privacy and safety of online operations also influenced their potential for considering e-commerce and online banking (Sait et al., 2004).
- Conclusion – The opportunities provided by the internet and technological advancements in Saudi Arabia are increasing with the strengthening of the ICT infrastructures. A central certification authority could be set up to enhance awareness regarding the capacity for e-commerce, through social media and other online platforms to encourage business promotion and growth (Sait et al., 2004). This is based on the assumption that the inclination of the internet towards supporting e-commerce would make more people support it.
- Comments/criticism – The paper is detailed enough and provides conclusive information. The recommendations provided are also viable. This makes the paper relevant to the present study due to the fact that the information it provides can be crucial in answering some of the research questions. The role played by internet connectivity on the adoption of e-commerce makes it necessary for the country to do more in terms of infrastructural expansion.
- Ideas for further study – In the future, more studies should be conducted on the exact manner in which social media contributes to effective business conduct. The study by Sait and others clearly explain that it is limited in terms of trade- offs between feasibility and accuracy. As such, the authors suggest that the results may not be applicable to the entire Saudi Arabian context since the survey questionnaires were administered online. It is thus recommended that future studies should incorporate paper questionnaires besides the online administrations. This is the only way in which an accurate result could be obtained that represents the views of the entire population, those with internet access as well as those without.
- Annotation – Sait, Al-Tawil and Hussain (2004) emphasized on the importance of e-commerce in Saudi Arabia. The authors mention various factors which are necessary for the improvement of e-commerce in the country and also mention that providing the appropriate background could result in improved e-commerce adoption in Saudi Arabia. In particular, the authors recommend that provision of internet access and e-commerce facilities could act as a starting point for the adoption of e-commerce in the country. This could then be coupled with promotion and e-commerce awareness campaigns. Despite its depth, the authors still assert that the study is limited due to its confinement within online survey procedures. They therefore recommend that future studies should incorporate paper questionnaires.
AlGhamdi, R., Drew, S. and Al-Ghaith, W. (2011). Factors Influencing E-Commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Analysis. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 47(7): 1-23.
AlGhamdi, R., Nguyen, J., Nguyen, A. and Drew, S. (2012). Factors Influencing E-Commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia: A Quantitative Analysis. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 3(2): 83- 100.
Linke, A. and Zerfass, A. (2013). Social Media Governance: Regulatory Frameworks for Successful Online Communications. Journal of Communication Management, 17(3), 270- 296.
Makki, E. and Chang, L. (2015). Understanding the Effects of Social Media and Mobile Usage on E-Commerce: An Exploratory study in Saudi Arabia. International Management Review, 11(2): 98- 109.
Oxera LLP (2015). Benefits of Online Platforms. Prepared for Google.
Said, S., Al-Tawil, K. and Hussain, S.A. (2004). E-commerce in Saudi Arabia: Adoption and Perspectives. Arab Journal of Information Sciences, 12(1): 54- 73.