Mass Media and Communication
Mass Media and Communication in Canada
The Canadian State and Media Policy
The Canadian broadcasting Act clearly indicates what they expect from any radio or television organizations. It further indicates that any organizations should make good use of the Canadian creative and other resources in producing and presenting their programmes (Curtis et al 550). The state is also made up of other elements like the regulatory agencies that have effects on media. In history, Canada has two independent broadcasting regulatories: the Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG) that was formed in 1958 and replaced by what is called the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The main objective of forming these agencies was to assist in ensuring that the media organizations abide by media legislation by coming up with specific rules that must be followed by organizations (Curtis et al 551).
Forms of Media Ownership in Canada
There are various categories of private and public ownership (Curtis et al 554). Public ownership is where the government owns the media. Examples include the Canadian Broadcasting Cooperation (CBC), National Film Board (NFB), and educational television broadcasters that are under the management of some provincial governments for instance Radio-Quebec and TV Ontario. The public ownership of media in Canada takes the form of crown cooperation. Majority of the mass media in Canada are under private ownership. The key objective of these organizations is to offer public service by making good use of media to attain social objectives. These objectives include providing media that is available to all citizens free of charge, using the media for learning reasons, and making sure that there is availability of Canadian voice in media (Curtis et al 554). Public owned media are usually supported by national funding, although extra funding may come from memberships. Private ownership can be described as possession of media by commercial firms. Majority of the organizations in Canada are owned by private firms. The main objective of private firms is survival and growth in the market place influenced by profits.
The Internet: Extending Political Economy and Cultural Studies
The aspects of cultural studies and political economy have enabled individuals to understand the use of global wide web and the internet. The access of social inequality in access to information and communication technologies can now be fully understood. This issue was vital in political economy until late 1980s. Several scholars carried out investigations to find out the effects of domestic and global social class, as those who could afford the use of technology were said to be rich and those who could not were said to be poor. Research handled the variations in social class in access to technologies like cable, videocassette recorders, and the initial personal computers (Curtis 555).
With the increase in the development of personal computers and the use of the internet, majority of the scholars now use the issue of digital divide. It simply refers to discrimination when it comes to accessing the internet or computers. Majority of the scholars look at the aspect of digital divide in access by considering the socio and socio-economic class. The analysis of the internet must put into consideration the state, globalization, and private ownership.
It can be used to recognize micro sociological issues related with the lives of women and their experience with discrimination, but also deal with micro sociological situations that account for the oppression of women. The current feminist theory puts much emphasis on three themes related to analysis of media and communication and they include difference, voice, and representation (Huffingtonpost.Ca 1). Difference raises various issues for instance differences between men and women. Feminists argue that there is a biological difference between men and women. Additionally men are said to be more aggressive compared to women. The theme difference also refers to variations in men and women basing on their sexual preference, or race (Curtis 554). The second theme is voice and it refers to the extent to which women are denied to speak using several types of communication. The third theme is the representation of women in media.
Representation of Women in Media
It is significant to put into consideration the manner in which news media are related to the representation of women or women related issues. The Canadian research carried out in this area focused on the news coverage of what is called Montreal Massacre. One of the coverage in news media indicated that Lepine entered in a classroom and killed all women claiming that they were feminists and they had contributed in ruining his life. A study carried out in Hayford to find out a comparison of the Montreal Massacre to a same incident in Chicago were usually interpreted by journalists in individualistic terms (Khalid 3). However, by the time the killings in Montreal happened 23 years later, the women movement had been successful in creating public awareness about violence against women, rape, and wife beating. Because this had an effect on some of the journalists, there was a media debate about personal and societal explanations for the killings. It is clear that Canadian media represents women as feminists.
The Middle East Mass Media and Communication
Dubai Media Policy
Representation of Women by Dubai Media
The major role of the media is to report, educate, and entertain the audience (Tbs-Sct.Gc.Ca 3). Women are unjustly represented in the media. The manner in which women are represented in media does not match with their responsibilities in the society. The United Arab Emirates media portray women as submissive, unthinking, and dependent beings with their major responsibility being production. Considering women advertisements, they are majorly used to add glamour. They are used as objects to attract the attention of viewers (Tbs-Sct.Gc.Ca 3). The media clearly shows how women are exploited. The cinema also portrays women as weak human beings. The negative representation of women in UAE media results in the promotion of destructive and harmful traits among the public.
Forms of Media Ownership in Dubai
The Dubai Media Incorporated (DMI) is the official government media organization. Most of the media organizations in Dubai are government owned including a number of radio, TV, and print channels.
The Use of Social Media in the United Arab Emirates
The three major media sites in Dubai include You Tube, Face book, and Twitter. In terms of communication, social media is believed to have changed the information landscape. Social media is highly known as the major tool for outreach and information for various public and private institutions in the United Arab Emirates. Studies also indicate that the use of social media has enabled various Arab countries to access various types of information. Although majority of the Arab countries have adopted the use of new technology, some of the susceptible issues include online privacy (MIT Technology Review 2). Social media has enhanced the development of strong bonds across the Arab world. It is used as a way of exchange of ideas and passing of information. Individuals use social media for various reasons for instance to understand the meaning of a social world.
From the information below, it can be concluded that the level of literacy in Middle East is low. It can also be concluded the popularly used media in the Middle East is possibly television, because it does not need high literacy skills. However, Canada being a developed country, we can surmise that the level of literacy is high and majority of the individuals use the internet. Additionally, there are various television stations in Canada for instance, educational television broadcasters (Curtis et al 554)
|Country||Population||Literacy Rate %||Radio Stations||TV Stations||Internet Hosts||Internet Users|
|1||Algeria||32,129,324||70||AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8
|2||Bahrain||677,886||89.1||AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0||4||1,339||165,000|
|3||Egypt||76,117,421||57.7||AM 42 (+15 repeaters), FM 4, shortwave 3
|4||Gaza Strip||1,324,991||NA||Am 0, FM 0,shortwave 0||2||NA||60,000 (includes West bank)|
|5||Iran||69.018,924||79.4||AM 72, FM 5, shortwave 5
|28+450 low-power repeaters||3,491|
|6||Iraq||25,374,691||40.4||AM 19,FM 51, shortwave 4
|7||Israel||6,199,008||95.4||AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2
|17 (+36 low-power repeaters||146,791||2 million|
|8||Jordan||5,611, 202||91.3||AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1||20 (+96 repeaters||4,116||307,500|
|9||Kuwait||2,257,549||83.5||AM 6, FM 11, shortwave 1||13+ several satellite channels||3,261||250,000|
|10||Lebanon||3,777,218||87.4||AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4||15 (+5 repeaters)||7, 199||400,000|
|11||Libya||5,631, 585||82.6||AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3||12+1 low power repeater||83||125,000|
|12||Mauritania||2,998,563||41.7||AM 1, FM 14, shortwave 1||1||79||10,000|
|13||Morocco||32,209,101||51.7||AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6||35 (+66 repeaters||2,680||700,000|
|14||Oman||2,903,165||75.8||AM 3, Fm 9, shortwave 2||13(+25 low-power repeaters||676||180,000|
|15||Qatar||840,290||82.5||AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1||1(+three repeaters||171||70,000|
|16||Saudi Arabia||25,795,938||78.8||AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2
|17||Yemen||20,024,867||50.2||AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2
|18||Sudan||39,148,162||61.1||AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1
|19||Syria||18,016,874||76.9||AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1
|44 (+17 repeaters)||11||220,000|
|20||Tunisia||9,974,722||74.2||AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6
|26 (+ 76 repeaters)
|21||Turkey||68,893,918||86.5||635 (+ 2,934 repeaters)
|22||Emirates||2,523, 915||77.9||AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
|23||West Bank||2,311,204||NA||AM 266, FM 225, shortwave 44
|24||Total Arab countries||309,648,668||66.33||AM 266, FM 225, shortwave 44
|25||Total Middle East||453,760,518||72.46||AM 377, FM 352, shortwave 57
|26||Canada||34.88 million||99||AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 5||8,743,000||29,760,764|
Similarities and differences between Middle East and Canada
Despite the differences in media in Middle East and Canada, there are several similarities. The main similarity is the significant role that media in Middle East and Canada play in educating individuals in general matters like environmental issues, childcare, mother care, and domestic problems (Kamalipour and Hamid 2). The media usually provides appropriate solutions to problems. For instance, individuals who are unemployed can learn of various training opportunities for new careers and jobs. The media agenda depends on whoever is in control. Media organizations operate on orders for instance; media in Canada and Middle East are controlled by either regimes or owners, or both. In the Middle East, it is the regime to decide on the kind of news that is supposed to be reported. However, the only key difference is that the Middle East does not have the mandate to agree or refuse government interference. This clearly indicates that they have to follow orders, while in Canada; media organizations have the right to refuse or accept (Singleton 1).
The media in Middle East is uncreative unlike in Canada where the media is proactive. Majority of the media organizations in Canada plan for the objectives that they wish to accomplish, while the media in the Middle East have objectives to attain.
Majority of the media organizations in the Middle East do not have private owners, and therefore majorly depend on funding from the government. On the other hand, there are several private owners of radio and television stations in Canada, and every organization has to find monetary support through advertisements or other resources.
One key difference between media in Canada and the Middle East is the quantity of the subject matter coverage (Tbs-Sct.Gc.Ca 2. Media in Canada is global, and their messages are sent internationally, typically in English, but in most cases in the language of that particular region. However, media in Middle East are believed to be local, and the satellite channels. Because the media in Arab World target the Middle East more than the international audience, the most popular language is Arabic.
The need to deal with religious and cultural pluralism is another difference between the media in the Middle East and Canada. Although there are various political and ethnic compositions, apart from Israel, the major religious influence is Islam and the chief cultural influence is Arabic. There is no such religious consistency in Canada. The major difference finds reflection in the content of the media in the various constraints that face media.
The Middle East has experienced various changes since early 1990s (Tbs-Sct.Gc.Ca 1). The introduction of new technologies like the internet, television, and satellite has resulted in the expansion of media. The flow of information across borders has enabled several consumers to access new technologies and the ability to interrelate with an international discourse. The development of media in Middle East was influenced by the Gulf War that took place between1990-1991, when majority of the individuals listened to CNN to get news from Gulf. This has resulted in an increase in the number of media in the Middle East.
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