Using Games to Develop Psychological and Social Interactions and Sport Motor Skills of Deaf Children

Using Games to Develop Psychological and Social Interactions and Sport Motor Skills of Deaf Children

Abstract

Majority of deaf children use special language to communicate with other people. Despite this, most of them are unable to communicate, interact, and socialize with other people who do not understand the special languages that they use. Majority of deaf children have the tendency to isolate themselves due to the feelings of un-belonging to the rest of children with normal hearing. This paper proposes a research on how to use physical and social games to improve the psychological and social interactions and sport motor skills of deaf children.

Key Words: Physical Games, Social Games, Motor Skills, Deaf Children, Social Interactions, Psychological Interaction

Background to the Research Study

Hearing sense plays significant roles in the development of social skills. It determines how an individual interacts and socializes with other people. Hearing sense provides the means by which individuals learn language and communicate with other people (Winnick, 2011). The process of learning basic social skills is a significant bridge between deaf children and the entire society (Fellinger et al., 2015). In addition, a research study indicated that developed sport motor skills not only enhance both social and psychological interactions and coherence (Westendorp et al., 2011). Essentially, language plays a vital role in individual’s integration into the society.

Lack of hearing sense leads to difficulty in communication, which directly affects how the individual adapts in the entire society as well as relates with other people (Anderson et al., 2013). At the end, the individual suffers from low self-esteem and self-confidence. Several researchers and scholars argue that sport activities can be used to regulate social as well as psychological adaptability of individuals suffering from hearing impairments (Leonard, 2014). It is necessary to make some special sport activities part of educational and psychological program in the curriculum of the schools for deaf children. This is because sport has positive effects on the children by helping them recognize their significance, their sense of belonging to the society, their liberation from sense of insulation, improvement of their relations with their mates in the school as well as active effect on their skill performance levels (Warner-Czyz et al., 2015).

Statement of the Problem

A deaf is a person lacking or deprived of the sense of hearing wholly or in part (Shields et al., 2012). As a result, they cannot communicate properly with other people without using special language that is different from the language of the people with ordinary hearing. The use of special language directly affects the ability of how the deaf interacts, socializes, as well as make friends amongst themselves and with the ordinary people (Antia & Kathryn, 2015). The social conception among deaf children can affect their social and psychological conception leading to difficulties in gaining friendships and acceptance. A previous research study revealed that development of sport motor skills improves the social and physical coherence of deaf children (Theeboom, Paul & Maureen, 1995). Developed motor skills also enhance the sport and emotional capabilities of deaf children (Theeboom, 1995).

In most schools for the deaf across the country, people without hearing sense are taught to communicate and interact with others using special languages. However, majority of the people they would like to communicate, interact, and socialize with are not acquainted with the special languages used by the deaf. This has created a huge problem in development of the socialization and interaction capabilities of the deaf children. As a result, they cannot communicate properly with other people without using special languages that is different from the language of the people with ordinary hearing. It affects their ability to communicate, interact, socialize, as well as make friends.

Previous studies show that deaf children have the tendency to isolate themselves due to the feelings of un-belonging to the rest of children (Kharrazi et al., 2012). Furthermore, they are incapable to communicate effectively with the rest of other people in the society mainly because of the use of special languages and underdeveloped socialization and interaction capabilities as well as psychological and social cohesion. Another research study revealed that deaf children usually feel lonely and do not participate in most social activities such as games because of a feeling of shyness due to their disability as well as language incoherency (Papaioannou & Christina, 2014). In addition, due to these problems, deaf children do not spend enough time having fun especially with other people with normal hearing.

In presenting the previous studies which all show the importance of basic movement(dynamic) skills in the life of a child and potentiality of increasing their abilities, but they did not concentrate on enhancing basic movement skills among deaf children through an educational program for games (Westendorp et al., 2011). The current study is unique among the other studies for its goal is to improve the basic movement skills for the deaf children by designing a program that consists of a set of physical and social games within the physical education session. After a thorough observation, the researcher has noticed that very few studies focused on enriching the educational sport program by adding a group of physical and social games to improve the dynamical, social, and psychological abilities in the physical education session.

In Dahuk Governorate in Iraq there are (1000) deaf students in the private schools among(120,000) ordinary students in the schools of Sulaimani, despite this number there is not a published study on the dynamical, social and psychological aspects within the physical education class and this subject is worth a study. The aim of this study is to (Explore the effectiveness of physical and social games in the physical education session to improve physical and psychological coherence (harmony).

The proposed educational program has positively affected the performance of the basic movement of children. The proposed educational program includes a variety of games that encourage them to be active. This helps in the growth of children and enhancing their physical, mental, social, and emotional capabilities and building their personalities by developing their motor skills (Theeboom, Paul & Maureen, 1995). There is an urgency to include games as an educational method in the learning process in general and physical education classes specifically in order to keep up with children needs and interests as well as develop their motor skills (Gallahue, 1982).

Research Objectives

This research study will be guided by the following three major objectives.

  1. To explore the effectiveness of physical and social games in improving development of social and psychological interactions coherence of deaf children.
  2. To determine how physical and social games can be used to enhance physical, mental, social, and emotional capabilities of deaf children.
  3. To develop sport motor skills (jump, walking, running, throwing, hopping etc.) of deaf children using physical and social games.

Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following three research questions.

  1. What is the effectiveness of physical and social games in improving the development of social and psychological interactions coherence of deaf children?
  2. How can physical and social games enhance physical, mental, social, and emotional capabilities of deaf children?
  3. Can physical and social games be used to develop sport motor skills of deaf children?

Research Design

This study will use descriptive survey research design to allow the researcher gather information, summarize the information, present the information, and interpret the information for the purpose of clarification. The researcher will do some pre-tests about the sport motor skills like walking, running, jump, throwing, and hopping to determine the effects of play games. Standards tests for measuring motor skills will be used to complete the pre-test. On the other hand, questionnaires will be used to collect data about the effects of physical and social games. Questionnaires will be distributed to sampled parents (mothers) and teachers of deaf children.

 

Works Cited

Anderson, Anne, et al. Child development and teaching pupils with special educational needs. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Antia, Shirin D., and Kathryn H. Kreimeyer. Social Competence of Deaf and Hard-Of-Hearing Children. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print.

Fellinger, Matthaus J., et al. “Motor performance and correlates of mental health in children who are deaf or hard of hearing.” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 57.10 (2015): 942-947.

Gallahue, David L. Understanding motor development in children. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 1982. Print.

Kharrazi, Hadi, et al. “A scoping review of health game research: past, present, and future.” Games for health: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications 1.2 (2012): 153-164.

Leonard, Laurence B. Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014. Print.

Papaioannou, Christina, and Christina Evaggelinou. “The Effect of a Disability Camp Program on Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in a Summer Sport and Leisure Activity Camp.” International Journal of Special Education 29.1 (2014): 121-129.

Shields, Nora, Anneliese Jane Synnot, and Megan Barr. “Perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity for children with disability: a systematic review.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 46.14 (2012): 989-997.

Theeboom, Marc, Paul De Knop, and Maureen R. Weiss. “Motivational climate, psychological responses, and motor skill development in children’s sport: A field-based intervention study.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (1995): 294-311.

Warner-Czyz, Andrea D., et al. “Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss.” Trends in Hearing 19 (2015): 2331216515572615.

Westendorp, Marieke, et al. “Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?” Research in Developmental Disabilities 32.3 (2011): 1147-1153.

Winnick, Joseph P. Adapted physical education and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2011. Print.