What other functions are carried out by Telomerase?

What other functions are carried out by Telomerase?
Introduction
 First, a vivid description of telomere and telomerase shall be provided, along with how they are involved in DNA break response. Specifically, the the role of the telomerase enzyme in DNA break response will be examined (Gomez et al. 2012) as well as their involvement in the maintenance of telomeres
 This shall be followed by a detailed description of telomere shortening, a process that is known to initiate telomere dysfunction, and which seems to become increasingly common with aging of human cells (Blackburn 2004). In this case, the causes of telomere dysfunction shall be examined, and especially the role that chronic oxidative stress (COS) plays in all this
 Thesis statement: While the role of telomerase dysfuction in cancer is well documeted in literature, its involvement in the causation of age-related illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) is only patially understood (Blackburn 2004; Zhu et al. 2011) in spite of role numerous progress and breakthroughs that have been realised in the field of telomere biology over the past decade.
Telomere Complex:
 Here a detailed description of the telomere complex will be provided, as discussed by various researchers. In addition, their primary role in the maintenance of genome stability will also be explored. This is in addition to describing the structure of a telomere complex, complete with a detailed and well labelled diagram (Gomez et al. 2012; Zvereva et al. 2011).
 Breaking of DNA results in p53 or p16INK4a pathway activation, eventually leading to apoptosis or cellular senescence (Zhu et al 2010). The essay will also endevour to examine this process, as well as the crucial role of the telomere complex in shileding chromosomes against DNA damage-repair recognition.
 Telomere erosion occurs when DNA polymerase cannot replicate the 3′ DNA strand end, in what is now commonly known as ‘end-replication problem’, leading to telomere shortening (Gomez et al. 2012). This process will also be examined, as well as the contibution of such environmental factors as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to telomere erosion (Martinez & Blasco 2010)
Determinants of telomere length
 Telomere length is a crucial determinant of the cell aging process and is normally affected by both genetic and enviornemntal factors. With regard to genetics, sex differences and ethnicity play a crucial part. For example, there is ample evidence in literature that females tend to have longer telomeres than their male counterparts. The essay will try to find out why this si the case (Zhu et al. 2010). Also, the attrition rate of telomere in women is slower than that of men. Again, the essay will endevour to explain this phenomenon using diverse explanations backed by credible evidence. The Caucasian race also tend to have shorter telomeres than African Americans, and this phenomenon will be exmamined. In terms of environmental factors, life and psychological stress, as well as inflamation are linked to affect telomere length. Accordingly, these environmental factors will be examined (Nawrot et al. 2010)
Impact of glucose restriction telomerase
Numerous research studies have shown that restricting glusoce uptake into the human cell usually results to reduced telomerase activity. Consequently, the reduced telomerase activity has been known to lead to improved telomerase inhibitor responses on cancer cells, especially breast cancer cells (Mitchell et al. 2010). The essay will therefore endevour to examine this phenomenon into details as a possible mechanism for arresting the growth and spreading of cancer cells.
Teromerase function regulation
The regulation of the teromerase activity is imapcted on by various factors, including genetics, enviornmental, as well as epigenetic factors. The association of each of these functions with the regulation of the teromerase activity will thus be examined, especially the role of nuclear and phosphorylation translocation in controlling teromerase activity (Mitchel et al. 2010; Wardi et al. 2010). Excercise as an enviornmental factors is also regarded as a significant aspect of telomerase function regulation and this too shall be examined into details.
Association between telomere biology and age-related diseases
Telomere dysfuction such as that which occurs due to reduced elongation, is often linked to the causation of numeours age related diseases, including cardiovascular heart disease (CHD), cancer. diabetes, and heart failure (Zhu et al. 2011).
I. Hypertension: here, the essay shall ndevour to explore the causal relationship between hypertension and telomere dysfunction
2. Heart failure: The essay will endevour to examine how chronic heart failure (CHF) is related to telomere dysfunction
3. Diabetes: The association between diabetes and shortened telomeres will be examined, in addition to the asociation between insulin resistance, obesity, and leucocyte telomere length
4. Longevity: Longer telomere length is often associated with an extended lifespan of the human cells, and vice-versa. This relationship will thus be explored in-depth.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this section of the essay, the key findings of the research paper will be re-examined, in addition to giving recommendations on the future direction of research studies in telomere biology, especially the possibility of amplifying the cell to facilitate various therapeutic functions, such as the development of anti-ageing agents and in the treatment of hypertension.

References
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