A proposal for a study on cancer in the American Society
Rationale and literature review
Mortality rates are on the rise in the United States since this society is projecting high numbers of cancer cases each year. Statistics on the mortality rate in the United States prove that cancer is on the lead. Since the year 1952, the American Cancer society has been changing facts and figures on cancer annually. In the year 2009, these statistics were taken on the basis of the geographical settings and all the races. The annual reports present a unique feature on the rising cases of cancer and deaths in each year with the study focusing on the whites, blacks, Asians islanders and American natives. The study was also done on the section of childhood cancer and the data had 13,000 cancer cases and two thousand cancer deaths. The report estimates that 580, 350 Americans will die of cancer in the year 2013 with 1600 of them dying daily. The three common cancers among men are prostate cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Prostate cancer affects men from the Hispanic origin; cancer of the lungs is common among white, black, American and Asian men. Colorectal cancer is the least type which affects Hispanic men, white, black and American Indian Native (Aronowitz 12). On the other hand, breast cancer affects women of all races women, lung cancer affects white, black, Asian and women of Hispanic races. Colorectal cancer also affects women of the Asian, Hispanic, white, black and the American Indian native. The leading causes of deaths in these women are lung cancer and breast cancer, which are common in women of white, black, Asian, and American origin.
Causes of cancer
Cancer the most dreaded disease is a compound collection of ailments with several possible causes. The project will be carried out on the known causes of cancer, which include genetic factors, lifestyles such as use of tobacco, type of diet, and physical activity. Other factors are certain types of infections and exposure to environments with certain chemicals and radiations. The organs found in our bodies are made up of cells that divide and multiply as per the requirements of the body. If these cells go on increasing when not in use by the body, they lead to a growth referred to as a tumor. This tumor could either be cancerous or non cancerous. Cancer in humans has a relation is to several viruses which enter a living cell and reproduce more viruses. When the DNA or the RNA of this cell affects the genes of the host’s cells, it may develop into cancer. The most common virus in spreading cancer is the human pavilloma virus, which grows on mucous membranes (Aronowitz 15). It spreads the virus when one comes into contact with infected surfaces.
Symptoms of cancer
Signs of cancer differ depending on the type of cancer affecting a patient. As cancer advances to the higher stages, there are the common symptoms such as loss of weight, fever and fatigue. Though these are also common symptoms of other illnesses apart from cancer, they occur in the company of severe pain on the affected area.
Treatment of cancer
There are four regular treatments of cancer namely surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biologic therapy. Once a patient is diagnosed with cancer, the oncologist gives the patient the best treatment options .This will be based on the type of cancer that patient is ailing, the rate of its multiplication and aspects such as age and general health. The effective treatment of Human Papilloma viruses is by destroying or removing the cells with the infection.
How the problem will be addressed
Many people do not comprehend that cancer is avertable in most cases. Learning what causes and what the risk factors are is the major step in cancer prevention. Though most of the risk factors are preventable, other factors related to genetics cannot be avoided. Prevention of suffering and deaths from cancer is by minimizing the rate of tobacco use, improving the diet, increasing physical activity and implementing the screening tests. This will establish a screening data and trend which will involve both youth and adult tobacco use, obesity occurrence and screening tests for use in breasts, cervical and prostrate cancers. The public should be educated on the need to go for screening because cancer is curable when detected early enough. Cases of cancer can be dealt with by ensuring that as young children grow, they are not in the exposure of conditions in which they will have CT scans done on them. This is because the head scans are proving to be the major cause of cancer to these children in the future.
Purpose and overview of the project
The project is basically focused on the elderly since they are the commonly affected by cancer in the American society. The major objective of the project realizes the personalities at the danger of contracting cancer. Solutions on the assistance on how to prevent this disease will be given to them since this disease is curable at the earliest stage. Elderly men are commonly affected by prostate cancer while the elderly women are commonly affected by breast cancer. The information is collected by contacting interviews on members of the American society. Questions will be asked on the kind of life style they live especially on their eating habits, their engagement in the physical activities and on their visitations to the health centers for screening on cancer.
Activities Materials and methods
In the implementation of this study, several programs will be put in place. This is to facilitate the implementation of the study which will be carried out in the American society. There is reinforcement of several centers to assist in screening tests on the members of the society. There will be no charges on the screening, but once an individual has the ailment, treatment will be given at affordable charges. Awareness program will in all the public areas especially in churches and market centers will be reinforced ( Aronowitz 23). This will assist in sensitizing people on the need of maintaining good health practices to ultimately minimize infections that come along with cancer. Other medics willing to volunteer in the same field will be given a chance so that they can assist in the starting of a research which requires all the professionals to work together.
The projected statistics of latest cancer cases and mortality rates vary significantly from year to year. These numbers are affected by the variations in method, improvements on the modeling techniques and cancer registration. Moreover, modeling techniques do not capture all changes in cancer inclinations and for this reason; these estimates are not the best for determining the changes in cancer occurrence and death. However, The American Cancer Society projections of the cancer cases and mortality rates provide accurate estimate of the studies on cancer. The leading cause of cancer in the American society is the kind of lifestyle they live. Most of the elderly individuals do not engage themselves in physical activities. Others use tobacco for leisure since they do not have specific activities they engage themselves.
Report on cancer in the American Society
The program aims to identify the major causes of cancer, common symptoms and the prevention measures of cancer in the American Society. The program’s objective is to create awareness on the cancer prevention measures in the public places where they will be able to reach all the members. The specific objectives are to help individuals in the community in changing their lifestyles where they will engage in physical activities, minimize or stop using tobacco and ensure that they attend the health centers for screening.
As previously mentioned, cancer is billed as the second leading root of death in the American society accounting for 22.6% of all deaths in the year 2009. Lung cancer accounts for the largest number of cancer fatalitites in both men and women at a rate of 29% and 21% respectively. This is followed closely by prostate cancer in men at 15% and breast cancer in women 19%. From the year 2000 to 2009, the death rates declined in both males and females. In spite of these declines, the death rates for all cancers collectively, continue to be significantly high. The racial difference in overall cancer death rate is largely to cancers of the breast, lung, prostrate and bronchus. However, research indicates that the cancer death rates have gradually been decreasing with death rates from lung and cervical cancer converging. This is because there is an increased access to the screening and treatment services (Weiner 45).
An awareness and screening program has been set up in the public for the members of the society to access it and take prevention measures in advance. Members whose results are positive are advised on the best measures of treatment which are accessible to them at minimal charges. The target population is the adult together with the elderly men and women. A sample of two areas has been chosen for the program implementation to start in these areas. The studies undertaken were on the mortality rate changes from the year 2005 to 2009.The five year relative survival rates are used to monitor the progress in the early detection and the treatment of cancer. The study was carried out in the American society with oral interviews being given to the elderly in the society.
Around 4 million CT scans conducted in children in the United States could cause approximately 4900 cancers in the future. Results show that reducing the 25 percent radiation could prevent nearly 2100 future cases of this cancer (Weiner 45). On the other hand, eliminating them completely could prevent about 3,000 cases of these future cancers. Therefore, CT scans should be done when it is medically necessary; and the CT dose should be appropriate for children. A spot light on impediment and better tools for discovery and treatment have led to the increase on the cancer survival rates since the American society was created in the year 1913 (Shannon 35). As this organization evolves into its second century, genetics will be a significant player in the combating of cancer related issues. Today, two in three people survive after receiving a cancer diagnosis unlike earlier on when only one in three survived (Kagan 23).
Recommendations and conclusions
Lowering the number of CT scans given to children could reduce their lifetime risk of contracting cancer by as much as sixty two percent. According to the study, the head CT which is the most commonly performed in children poses the highest risk of radiation induced Leukemia and brain cancers (Hanna 34). According to the study on cancer, it has been the major cause of mortality rates in the American society. The recent studies have shown that the mortality rates have gone down since there has been awareness on the prevention measures. Residents were advised to change the lifestyles especially on the physical activity, the diet that they take and minimize or stop using tobacco (Aronowitz 45). Americans need to adopt the culture of visiting health centers for screening where advice is given to them on the best treatment. The treatment will highly be centered on the type of cancer they are diagnosed with and also its level of advancement. The conclusion is that cancer is not a distressing disease since we can declare that it is curable. This is on the condition that the prevention measures are taken.